Ep. 32 - Al Capone & Forensic Accounting

[1] A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. [Internet].

[2] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, January 21). Al Capone. Encyclopedia Britannica [Internet].

[3] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, February 7). Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre. Encyclopedia Britannica [Internet].

[4] Crumbly DL., & Apostolou N. (2018). America’s First (and Most Fearless) High-profile Forensic Accountant [Internet].

[5] Daugherty, G. (2021, October 29). How Al Capone spent his time in Alcatraz. [Internet].

[6] FBI. (2016, May 18). Al Capone. FBI [Internet].

[7] The TASA Group. (n.d.). Forensic Accountants: Why, When, and How to Hire Them [Internet].

[8] Hayes, A. (2020). Forensic Accounting. [Internet]. Editors (2019). Al Capone. [Internet].

[9] Roufa T. (2019). What Does a Forensic Accountant Do?. The Balance Careers [Internet].,fraud%20and%20other%20financial%20crimes.

[10] Ministry of Finance of British Columbia. (n.d.). Investigation and Forensic Unit Policy and Procedures Manual.

[11] Tuovilq, A. (2020). Audit. [Internet].

[12] Zysman A. (n.d.). Forensic Accounting Demystified [Internet].

Ep. 31 - Steven Truscott & Forensic Entomology

[1] Anderson, G. (2000). Minimum and maximum development rates of some forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45, 824 - 832.

[2] Anderson, G. (2016, June 15). Entomology - A Primer. Canadian Society of Forensic Science. Retrieved from:

[3] Anderson, G. (n.d.). Forensic Entomology: The Use of Insects in Death Investigation. Simon Frasier University. Retrieved from:

[4] Benecke, M. (2001). A brief history of forensic entomology. Forensic Science International, 120(1-2), 2 - 14.

[5] Canadian Press (2007, August 28). Chronology: Key events in the Steven Truscott case. CTV News [internet].

[6] Cheryl Lynne Harper. Find a Grave [internet].

[7] Decomposition: fly life cycle and development times. (2019, January 25). Australian Museum. Retrieved from:

[8] Forensic Entomology. (n.d.). Crime Museum. Retrieved from:

[9] Forsyth, B. (2016, October). Case not closed: The enduring tragedy of the Harper – Truscott murder case. Canadian Military History [internet].

[10] Gregory, S. (2015, October 09). Lynne Harper murder still affects Lawson 56 years later. Seaforth Huron Expositor [internet].

[11] Gemmellaro, D. (2017, June 21). Forensic Entomology: Where Insects Meet the Law. Entomology Today. Retrieved from:

[12] Harland-Logan, S. (n.d.). Steven Truscott. Innocence Canada [internet].

[13] L.W. (n.d.). Bio: Steven Truscott. [internet].

[14] Makin, K. (2018, September 13). Steven Truscott Case. Canadian Encyclopedia [internet].

[15] Ontario Justice Education Network (n.d.). Timeline of Events for the Steven Truscott Case. [internet].

[16] Saferstein, R. (2018). Role of Forensic Entomologist. In Criminalistics: an introduction to forensic science (12th ed., pp. 122 - 123). Pearson Education.

[17] VanLaerhoven, S.L., Merritt, R.W. (2019, Aug). 50 years later, insect evidence overturns Canada’s most notorious case — Regina v. Steven Truscott. Forensic Science International, 301(Special Issue Cold Cases): 326-330.

[18] Yates, D. (2015, January 04). The search for Lynne Harper. Goderich Signal-Star [internet].

[19] (2020). Stephen Truscott -- Timeline. [internet].

Ep. 30 - Ted Kaczynski & Forensic Linguistics

[1] Anderson, J. & Brown, M. December 24, 2021. Unabomber Ted Kaczynski transferred from Supermax prison to a medical facility. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from:

[2] Agrawal, S. (2021, September 27). The unabomber case: Foundation of Forensic linguistics. The Critegal. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from,leaving%20no%20DNA%20evidence%20whatsoever

[3] Ariani, M. G., Sajedi, F., & Sajedi, M. (2014). Forensic linguistics: A brief overview of the key elements. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 158, 222-225.

[4] Bailey, Holly. January 28, 2016. The Unabomber takes on the Internet. Yahoo!News. Retrieved from:

[5] Chase, Alston. June 2000. Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:

[6] Correa, Maite. (2013). Forensic Linguistics: An Overview of the Intersection and Interaction of Language and Law. Studies About Languages. 10.5755/j01.sal.0.23.5020.

[7] Deutsch, Linda. May 4, 1998. Kaczynski Given Four Life Sentences. Associated Press. Retrieved from:

[8] Drake, Phil. April 2, 2021. Unabomber Ted Kaczynski now held in ‘Alcatraz of the Rockies’. Independent Record. Retrieved from:

[9] Fadden L., Disner S.F. (2014) Forensic Linguistics. In: Bruinsma G., Weisburd D. (eds) Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Springer, New York, NY.

[10] FBI. April 2, 2021. The Words of a Killer: How the Unabomber’s Writings Helped Lead Investigators to His Door 25 Years Ago. Retrieved from:

[11] FBI. n.d. The Unabomber. Retrieved from:

[12] Editors. August 21, 2018. Unabomber (Ted Kaczynski). History, A&E Publishers. Retrieved from:

[13] Hollien, Harry. (2012). About forensic phonetics. Linguistica. 52. 27. 10.4312/linguistica.52.1.27-53.

[14] n.a. May 25, 2016. Unabomber Too Ill to Recognize Illness. Treatment Advocacy Center. Retrieved from:

[15] n.a. 2021. TED KACZYNSKI: THE UNABOMBER. Crime Museum. Retrieved from:

[16] Ray, Michael. n.d. Ted Kaczynski American criminal. Britannica. Retrieved from:

[17] Sudjana, E. T. S., & Fitri, N. (2013). Kurt Cobain’s Suicide Note Case: Forensic Linguistic Profiling Analysis. International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 6(4). Retrieved from

[19] Svartvik, J. (1968). The Evans Statements. University of Goteburg.

[18] Turchie, T. D. (1996, April 3). Search Warrant Affidavit. United States District Court Montana.

Ep. 29 - Lindbergh Kidnapping & Document Examination

[1] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, January 31). Charles Lindbergh. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[2] Canadian Centre for Forensic Science. (n.d.). Documents. Canadian Centre for Forensic Science.

[3] FBI. (2016, May 18). Lindbergh kidnapping. FBI. Retrieved February 1, 2022, from

[4] Kidnapping and trial. Minnesota Historical Society. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2022, from

[5] National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC). (n.d.). A Simplified Guide To Forensic Document Examination. National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC).

[6] Norwitch Document Laboratory. (2019, June). Indented Writing. Norwitch Document Laboratory.

[7] Ray, M. (2021, February 22). Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[8] Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination, SWGDOC (2018, March 12). What Does a Forensic Document Examiner Do?. Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination, SWGDOC.

Ep. 28 - Mark Twitchell & Blood Pattern Analysis

[1] BCA. (n.d.). Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Retrieved from:

[2] Bennett, D. (2011, March 21). Wife of accused killer thought he was with shrink. CTV News.

[3] CBC News. (2011, April 05). Twitchell directed police to remains. CBC News.

[4] CBC News. (2011, March 22). Slain man called friend after garage visit, Twitchell jury told. CBC News.

[5] CBS News Editors. (2012, July 10). Mark Twitchell: A closer look at the evidence. CBS News.

[6] Frasier, B. (2019, November 26). Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. FRSC 2200: Basic Sciences for Forensics. Halifax; Nova Scotia.

[7] Gelinas, B. (2011, April 01). Bio: House of Cards crew. Edmonton Journal.

[8] Gelinas, B. (2011, March 15). Bio - Mark Andrew Twitchell. Edmonton Journal.

[9] Habib, A. (2019, September). Crime Scene Investigations. FRSC 2200: Basic Sciences for Forensics. Halifax; Nova Scotia.

[10] Naves, A.W. (2021, June 19). The Dexter Killer – Mark Twitchell. Medium.

[11] Peschel, O., Kunz, S. N., Rothschild, M. A., & Mützel, E. (2011). Blood stain pattern analysis. Forensic science, medicine, and pathology, 7(3), 257-270.

[12] PhysicsWorld. (2019, October 17). The physics of blood spatter. IOP Publishing. Retrieved from:

[13] Thompson, E. (2018, 22 March). The Dexter Killer – Mark Twitchell. Morbidology.

[14] WIRED. (2020, January 30). Forensics Expert Explains How to Analyze Bloodstain Patterns [Video]. Youtube.

Ep. 27 - Jim Jones & Forensic Toxicology

[1] Brosseau, C. (2020, March). Introduction to Forensic Toxicology. FRSC 2201. Halifax; Nova Scotia.

[2] Carter, T. (2013, July 25). Murder or Suicide: What I Saw. Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Retrieved from:

[3] Citroner, G. (2018, September 17). Cyanide poisoning: Symptoms, treatment, complications, and more. Healthline. Retrieved December 23, 2021, from

[4] Conroy, O. J. (2018, November 17). An apocalyptic cult, 900 dead: remembering the Jonestown massacre, 40 years on. The Guardian. Retrieved from:

[5] Editors. (2010, October 18). Jonestown. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved from:

[6] Jonestown. FBI. Retrieved from:

[7] N.a. (2008, November 13). Inside the Jonestown massacre. CNN. Retrieved from:

[8] Real Stories. (2018, March 27). The Jonestown Massacre: Paradise Lost (Cult Documentary) [Video]. Youtube.

[9] Saferstein, R. (2018). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science (12th ed.). Pearson.

[10] Shsucj. (2012). Forensic research extends detection of cyanide poisoning. EurekAlert! Retrieved December 23, 2021, from

[11] Stephen N. Vogel, Thomas R. Sultan & Raymond P. Ten Eyck (1981) Cyanide Poisoning, Clinical Toxicology, 18:3, 367-383, DOI: 10.3109/15563658108990043

[12] Valiente, A. & DelaRosa, M. (2018, September 28). 40 years after the Jonestown massacre: Jim Jones' surviving sons on what they think of their father, the Peoples Temple today. abcNEWS. Retrieved from:

Ep. 26 - Feral People & the National Parks Conspiracy

[1] National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs)

[2] National Park Service Cold Cases

[3] Missing in the United States Map

[4] asantos16. (2013). Psychology of language flashcards | Quizlet. Quizlet. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[5] Brittanica Editors. (2021, September 30). National Park. Brittanica.

[6] Brogaard, B. (2017, July 10). The feral child nicknamed Genie | psychology Today Canada. Psychology Today. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[7] Cherry, K. (2021, February 26). The story of "Genie," a child deprived of nearly all human contact. Verywell Mind. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[8] Cook, B. (2021, May). Are there feral people in national parks? Behind TikTok's cannibal claims. THe Focus.

[9] (1969). Dennis Lloyd Martin Disappearance Case File. National Park Service.

[10] Dark Tales. (2020, June 04). The Disappearance of Dennis Martin. Dark Tales.

[11] Ferris, George C. (3 June 1902). Sanichar the Wolf-Boy of India (PDF). New York City. p. 20.

[12] Fredriksson, T. (2021, April 18). Tarzan was lord William Charles Midlin, 14th Earl of Streatham. Undersökande Tomas Fredriksson. Retrieved November 24, 2021, from

[13] Hussain, F. (2017, April 8). Raised by animals. DAWN.COM. Retrieved November 24, 2021, from

[14] James, S. (2008, May 19). Raised by a Tyrant, Suffering a Sibling's Abuse. ABC News. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[15] Jarman, M. (2019, January 2). feral children. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[16] Karomo, C. (2021, May 6). Where is Genie Wiley now in 2021? - the secrets about her healthcare exposed. TheNetline. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[17] Lakin, M. (2019, June 06). Missing in the Smokies: Dennis Martin's disappearance still haunts park, 52 years later. Knox News.

[18] Macdonald, F. (2015, October 12). Feral: The children raised by wolves. BBC Culture. Retrieved November 23, 2021, from

[19] Nova (1997). Genie: Secret of the Wild Child [Film].

[20] Spitznagel, E. (2020, July 04). Why hundreds of people vanish into the American wilderness. New York Post.

[21] Zak M. (2015). A Book Like Rain in the Desert. Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature 53(2), 66-73. doi:10.1353/bkb.2015.0035.

Ep. 25 - Wayne Boden & Forensic Odontology

[1] AAFS. (n.d.). Odontology. American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Retrieved from:

[2] Adebowale, T. (2020, April 22). Here's What Happened to Dr. Michael West From the Innocence Files. Pulse. Retrieved from:

[3] CIP. (n.d.). Bite Mark Evidence. California Innocence Project Retrieved from:

[4] Divakar, K. P. (2017). Forensic Odontology: The New Dimension in Dental Analysis. International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS, 13(1), 1-5.

[5] Selby, D. (2020, April 26). Why Bite Mark Evidence Should Never Be Used in Criminal Trials. Innocence Project. Retrieved from:

[6] Souviron, R., & Haller, L. (2017, December). Bite mark evidence: bite mark analysis is not the same as bite mark comparison or matching or identification. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 4(3); 617 - 622.

[7] UMSOD. (n.d.). Early Forensic Odontology. National Museum of Dentistry. Retrieved from:

Ep. 24 - Anatoly Moskvin & Mummies

[1] BBC News. (2012, March 6). Russian 'grave robber made dolls from girls' corpses'. BBC News. Retrieved from:

[2] Byers, S. (2011). Introduction to Forensic Anthropology (4th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.

[3] DeLong, W. (2019, February 11). Anatoly Moskvin's Parents Thought He Collected Vintage Dolls - They Were Really Young Mummified Girls. All That's Interesting. Retrieved from:

[4] Egyptian mummies. Smithsonian Institution. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

[5] Ferllini, R. (2002). Silent Witness. NY: Firefly Books.

[6] Garlinghouse, T. (2020, July 15). Mummification: The lost art of embalming the dead. LiveScience. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

[7] Gazeta, R. (2012, January 19). The investigator spoke about high-profile cases. [Interview]. RGRU. Retrieved from:

  • Interview with Vladimir Stravinskas, translated from Russian - may not be a perfect translation.

[8] Investigative Department. (2013, February 27). In the Nizhny Novgorod region, compulsory medical measures will be applied to a man who has committed desecration of the bodies of the deceased and the places of their burial. Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation for the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Retrieved from:

  • Translated from Russian - may not be a perfect translation.

[9] Reddy, K., & Lowenstein, E. J. (2011). Forensics in dermatology: part I. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 64(5), 801-808.

[10] Stewart, W. (2020, November 2). Russian graverobber who was locked up for stealing 29 girls' corpses or his 'doll collection' refuses to apologise to their parents as he appeals for release - so he can move in with his new girlfriend. DailyMail. Retrieved from:

[11] Sudakov, D. (2018, October 25). Man accused of making 26 life-size dolls from dead girls' body. Retrieved from:

[12] The case of necropolis Moskvin postponed until June 26. (2015, June 18). Crime Chronical NN. Retrieved from:

  • Translated from Russian - may not be a perfect translation

[13] Welcome to the story about Tollund Man. Museum Silkeborg. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

[14] 7NEWS. (2020, November 7). Russian man lived with girls' mummified corpses, turned them into 'dolls'. 7NEWS. Retrieved from:

Ep. 23 - Unsolved Serial Killers

[1] Badal, J. (2016, December 2). Torso murders. Cleveland Police Museum.

[2] Bennett, E. (29 May 2021). The notorious and eerie unsolved mystery of killer dubbed 'Jack the Stripper'. My London [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021).

[3] Boyle, C. (n.d.) Long Island Serial Killer: A Deeper Look Into the Gilgo Beach Murders. Retrieved from:

[4] Cheng, P., & Millman, J. (Jan. 16, 2020). Eerie Crime Scene Photo Offers 1st Public Insight Into Possible Gilgo Beach Killer. NBC New York. Retrieved from:

[5] Crime Investigation. (n.d.). Jack the Stripper’ and the Hammersmith Murders. Crime Investigation [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021).

[6] DeMarco, L. (2018, October 13). Cleveland's infamous Torso Murders: 80 years later, the fascination endures (vintage photos). cleveland.

[7] Fernandez, M., Tim, S. (Apr. 17, 2011). Officer and His Dog Play Key Role in Hunt for Remains. New York Times. Retrieved from:

[8] Green, L. (Sept. 12, 2017). Long Island carpenter convicted of killing two prostitutes eyed in at least one of the unsolved Gilgo Beach murders. New York Daily News. Retrieved from:

[9] Hewitt, L. (n.d.) Jack the Stripper: Hammersmith Nude Murders. Historic Mysteries [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021).

[10] Killoran, E. (Dec. 15, 2016). Why Hasn’t the Long Island Serial Killer Case Been Solved? Rolling Stone. Retrieved from:

[11] Mead, J. C. (Dec. 14, 2003). 4 Bodies Leave Hamlet On Edge. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

[12] Mead, Julia C. (Feb. 8, 2004). A Manorville Body Is Identified. The New York Times. Retrieved from:


[14] Pelisek, C. (Nov. 7, 2016). Long Island Serial Killer: How Close Are Police to Catching the Suspect — or Suspects? Retrieved from:

[15] Pelisek, C. (Mar. 1, 2021). New discovery+ series tackles decade-old long island serial murders. Retrieved from:

[16] Rashbaum, W. K., Goldstein, J. (Apr. 8, 2011). Prostitutes' killer seen as versed in police techniques. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

[17] Schram, J., Algar, S., & Tacopino, J. (Dec. 12, 2015). Busted ex-police chief blocked FBI probe of Gilgo Beach murders. New York Post. Retrieved from:

[18] Swenson, K. (2021, January 7). Frank Dolezal's name cleared in Torso Murders. Cleveland Scene.

[19] The Killing Season. A&E Network. November 5, 2016. Josh Zeman and Rachel Mills.

[20] The Ministry of History. (28 Jan 2021). The Hammersmith Murders. The Ministry of History [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021).

[21] The Newsroom. (13 Feb 2019). MURDERED BY A SERIAL KILLER: ‘Free-spirited’ and ‘beautiful’ Blackpool girl Helene was victim of evil Jack the Stripper. The Gazette [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 06 Sep 2021).

[22] Torso murders: Encyclopedia of cleveland history: Case western reserve university. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History | Case Western Reserve University. (2020, November 11).

[23] Torres, E. (Feb. 2, 2020). What we know and don't about Long Island’s suspected serial killer case. ABC News. Retrieved from:

[24] VICE Editors. (Feb.3, 2016) Inside the Bizarre, Unsolved Case of the Long Island Serial Killer. VICE. Retrieved from:

Ep. 22 - Fred & Rosemary West

[1] Cawthorne, N. (2007). The House of Horrors. In Serial Killers and Mass Murderers: Profiles of the World's Most Barbaric Criminals (p. 272-304). Ulysses Press.

[2]Hickey, E. W. (2002). Serial murderers and their victims (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

[3] Hickey, E. (2003). Team killers. In Encyclopedia of murder and violent crime (Vol. 1, pp. 463-466). SAGE Publications, Inc.,

[4] Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns, and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 1–11.

[5] Ramsland, K. (2014, July). Partners in Crime. Psychology Today.

[6] Silvio, H., McCloskey, K., & Ramos-Grenier, J. (2006). Theoretical consideration of female sexual predator serial killers in the United States. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 251–259.

[7] Sounes, H. (1995). Fred and Rose: The Full Story of Fred and Rose West and the Gloucester House of Horrors. Warner Books (London). ISBN 978-0-7515-1322-6.

[8] Vronsky, P. (2007). Female serial killers: How and why women become monsters. Berkley Books.

[9] Woster, Matthew, "Differences in Characteristics of Criminal Behavior Between Solo and Team Serial Killers" (2020). Dissertations. 463.

Ep. 21 - Nova Scotia's Notorious Past

Butterbox Babies

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Lila Gladys Young. Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).

[2] Canadian Children's Rights Council (n.d.). The Butterbox Babies - The selling and murdering of Canadian Babies. Canadian Children's Rights Council [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).

[3] Livio, S.K. (n.d.). The Butterbox Babies - Horrific Canadian Child Rights Story: Survivors of dark episode in Canada's history trace their past. Canadian Children's Rights Council [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).

[4] (n.a.). (n.d.). Butterbox Babies. Ideal Maternity Home Survivors [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 23 Jul 2021).

[5]. Bottemiller, K. (21 Jul 2012) GV woman helps ‘Butterbox Baby’ survivors understand past. Green Valley News [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).

[6] Hartlen, R. (1999). Butterbox survivors: Life after the ideal maternity home. Nimbus Publishing.

Sydney River McDonald's Murders

[7] Benjamin, G. (2019, November 9). One of three men convicted in McDonald's murders awarded unescorted absences - Halifax. Global News.

[8] Pace, N. (2018, August 20). McDonald's killer Darren Muise 'financially secure' and 'living a good life' on parole: documents - Halifax. Global News.

[9] R. v. Wood, 1993 CanLII 4535 (NS SC), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[10] R. v. Wood, 1994 NSCA 239 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[11] R. v. MacNeil, 1993 CanLII 3348 (NS SC), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[12] R. v. MacNeil, 1993 CanLII 4442 (NS SC), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[13] Tattrie, J. (2017, September 18). Sydney River McDonald's Murders. Sydney River McDonald's Murders | The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Goler Clan

[14] Beltrame, J. (1986, March 13). Shame of ‘hillbilly’ incest forces Nova Scotia county into action. Ottawa Citizen, pp. A4.

[15] CBC News. (1998, November 8). Abuse victim fights to change law. CBC. Accessed from:

[16] Cruise, D., & Griffiths, A. (2017). On South Mountain: The Dark Secrets of the Goler Clan. Nimbus Publishing.

[17] Duncan, J. (2018, December 14). 10 Dark Facts About The Incestuous Goler Clan. Listverse. Accessed from:

[18] Souerbry, R. (2019, July 23). The Goler Clan Spent Years In Their Isolated, Inbred Town - Until The Cops Showed Up. Ranker. Accessed from:

[19] Vickery, C. (2017, May 10). The Goler Clan 1986 [Video file]. YouTube.

[20] Wood, C. (1986, March 10). Follow Up: The scars of poverty. Maclean’s.

Ep. 20 - Lethal Lovers & Female Serial Killers

[1] Aamodt, M. G. (2016, September 4). Serial killer statistics. Retrieved 12 July 2021 from

[2] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Catherine May Wood: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Catherine May Wood Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[3] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Gwendolyn Graham: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Gwendolyn Graham Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[4] Bonn, S (24 Jun 2019). The Unique Motives of Female Serial Killers. Psychology Today [Internet]. (Accessed 12 Jul 2021).

[5] Cottier, C (03 Dec 2020).¸Female Serial Killers Exist, but Their Motives Are Different. Discovery. Retrieved from (Accessed 12 Jul 2021).

[6], R. S. F. (2020, January 16). Serial killer freed from prison 33 years after murders - as detective warns she may strike again. Daily Mail Online.

[7] Farrell, A.L., D. Keppel, R.D., & Titterington, V.B. (20 May 2013). Testing Existing Classifications of Serial Murder Considering Gender: An Exploratory Analysis of Solo Female Serial Murderers. Investig. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10: 268–288. DOI: 10.1002/jip.1392

[8] Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). Serial Murder: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investivagtors. Behavioural Analysis Unit, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime.

[9] Gwendolyn Graham. Crime Museum. (2019, November 8).

[10] Harrison, M.A., Hughes, S.M., Gott, A.J. (2019). Sex Differences in Serial Killers. Evolutionary Behavioural Sciences, 13(3): 295-310.


Ep. 19 - Albert DeSalvo & Forensic Hypnosis

[1] Albert DeSalvo. (n.d.).

[2] Anglin, R. J. (1967, January 13). Albert DeSalvo is 'Boston Strangler' - The Boston Globe.

[3] A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). Boston Strangler strikes again.

[4] A&E Networks Television. (2021, April 7). Albert DeSalvo.

[5] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Albert DeSalvo: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Albert DeSalvo | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[6] CBC News. (2007). Top court says evidence from hypnosis not reliable. CBCnews.

[7] Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (n.d.). Boston Strangler. Encyclopædia Britannica.

[8] James, ~ H. (2016, May 20). Green Man assaults. Hadena James.

[9] Lennon, T. (2017, January 18). Albert DeSalvo confessed to Boston Strangler murders but sentenced to life for other crimes. The Daily Telegraph. Albert DeSalvo confessed to Boston Strangler murders but sentenced to life for other crimes.

[10] McEnroe, C. (2018, September 20). A PAGE FROM HISTORY.

[11] McGaughty, L. (Mar. 11, 2021). “Texas Rangers stop using hypnosis after Dallas Morning News investigation reveals dubious science”. The Dallas Morning News. Accessed from:

[12] Paterline, B. A. (2016). Forensic hypnosis and the courts. Journal of Law and Criminal Justice, 4 (2), 1-7.

[13] Patry, M. (Oct 6 2020). Hypnosis Lecture. Advanced Psychology and Law.

[14] Rodgers, G. (2018, May 12). Boston Strangler Archives. Dying Words.

[15] Ramsland, K. (Sept. 17, 2018). “Forensic Hypnosis: More Cons than Pros?” Psychology Today. Accessed from:

[16] Serena, K. (2020, April 24). This Man Confessed To Killing 13 Women - But Was He Really The 'Boston Strangler'? All That's Interesting.

[17] Winter, A. (2013). The rise and fall of forensic hypnosis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 44(1), 26-35.

Ep. 18 - The Cannibal Special

[1] Blanco, J.I. (ed.). (n.d.). Armin Meiwes. Murderpedia [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021).

[2] Harding, L. (04 December 2003). Victim of cannibal agreed to be eaten. The Guardian, International ed. [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021).

[3] N.a. (03 December 2003). German cannibal tells of fantasy. BBC News [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021).

[4] O’Connor, R. (09 February 2016). Armin Meiwes: Interview with a Cannibal documentary sheds new light on one of Germany’s most infamous murderers. Independent [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021).

[5] Conklin, Beth. 1995. “thus are our bodies, thus was our custom”: mortuary cannibalism in an Amazonian society. American Ethnologist 22(1): 75-101.

[6] Conklin, Beth. 2007. “Cannibalism and the work of culture in bereavement: Commentary on Gottlieb.” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 55(4):1253-1264.

[7] Miller, D.W. 2005. “Love me, miss me, eat me.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, A15-A16.

[8] Vilaça, Aparecida. 1997. “Christians without faith: Some aspects of the conversion of the Wari′’ (Pakaa Nova)” Ethnos 62(1-2): 91-115. DOI: 10.1080/00141844.1997.9981545

[9] Vilaça, Aparecida. 2000. “Relations between Funerary Cannibalism and Warfare Cannibalism: The Question of Predation.” Ethnos 65(1): 83-106. DOI: 10.1080/001418400360652.

[10] Blanco, J.I. (ed.). (n.d.). Albert Fish. Murderpedia [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 15 May 2021).

[11] Editors. (14 January 2020). “Moon Maniac” killer is executed. History [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 16 May 2021).

[12] n.a. (28 November 2020). Albert Fish: Serial Killer Cannibal Who Ate Kids And Wrote To Their Parents About It (The Brooklyn Vampire). History Daily [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 16 May 2021).

[13] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 134-137

Ep. 17 - Nelson Hart & Mr. Big Technique

[1] Jaksa, W. (2021). Probative vs prejudicial. [internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 07 May 2021).

[2] Murphy, B., & Anderson, J. (2015). Confessions to Mr Big: A new rule of evidence?. The International Journal of Evidence & Proof, 20(1): 29-48.

[3] Patry, M.W. (November, 2020). Mr. Big Technique [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, PSYC 4443: Advanced Psychology & Law.

[4] R. v. Hart, 2014 SCC 52, [2014] 2 S.C.R. 544

[5] Smith, S.M., Stinson, V., & Patry, M.W. (2009). Using the “Mr. Big” technique to elicit confessions: Successful innovation or dangerous development in the Canadian legal system?. Psychology Public Policy and Law 15(3): 168-193. DOI: 10.1037/a0016962.

[6] Stinson, V. (October, 2019). Mr. Big Technique [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, PSYC 3320: Psychology & Law.

[7] Woods, S. (2014). A New Standard for “Mr. Big” Confessions: R v Hart . The Court [internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 07 May 2021).

[8] Absence seizures. (n.d.). Retrieved May 07, 2021, from,by%20a%20period%20of%20hyperventilation

[9] R. v. Hart, 2007 NLTD 74 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2021-05-07

[10] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Nelson Hart: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved May 07, 2021, from

Ep. 16 - The Phantom of Heilbronn & DNA Contamination

[1] AG Blogger (2020, October 13). Sources of DNA & RNA Contamination in the Lab. AG Scientific [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[2] Berlin, A.H. (2008). 'Woman Without A Face' leaves German police in the dark. The Sydney Morning Herald [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[3] Boyes, R. (2007). Junkie's needle may lead to woman serial killer. Independent News [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[4] Cale, Cynthia M., et al. “Could Secondary DNA Transfer Falsely Place Someone at the Scene of a Crime?” Journal of Forensic Science Sciences, vol. 61, no. 1, 2016, pp. 196-203,

[5] Diehl, J. (2008). Hunt for the phantom. Spiegel panorama [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[6] Geddes, L. (2012, January 11). How DNA contamination can affect court cases. NewScientist [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[7] Himmelreich, C. (2009). Germany's Phantom Serial Killer: A DNA Blunder. Time [Internet]. Retrieved from:,8599,1888126,00.html

[8] Okorocha, O. (2020). How DNA Contamination Can Alter Court Cases. Forensic Toxicology Expert Witness [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[9] Puritan Authors. (2016, June 14). Identifying and Preventing DNA Evidence Contamination. Puritan Blog [Internet]. Retrieved from:,samples%20getting%20mixed%20during%20sequencing

[10] Schwark, T., et al. “Phantoms in the mortuary - DNA transfer during autopsies.” Forensic Science International, vol. 216, no. 1-3, 2012, pp. 121-126,

[11] Temko, N. (2008). Germany's hunt for the murderer known as 'the woman without a face’. The Guardian [Internet]. Retrieved from:

Ep. 15 - Colonel Russel Williams & Tire Tread Analysis

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Russell Williams: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Russell Williams | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[2] Blatchford, C., McArthur, G., Appleby, T., & Ladurantaye, S. (2010, February 9). Tire tracks led police to Williams. The Globe and Mail.

[3] Bodziak, W. (2008). Tire Tread and Tire Track Evidence. Taylor & Francis Group.

[4] Butts, E. (2016). Russell Williams Case. Russell Williams Case | The Canadian Encyclopedia.

[5] Campbell, M., & Westoll, N. (2020, October 22). Family, friends of Jessica Lloyd mark decade since Russell Williams received life sentence. Global News.

[6] CBC/Radio Canada. (2020, September 26). Col. Russell Williams timeline | CBC News. CBCnews.

[7] Davidson, J. (2010, November 5). Tire sleuth helped nab notorious sex killer. Whitehorse Daily Star.,-Sitting%20at%20an&text=He%20sidesteps%20further%20praise%20for,woman%20Jessica%20Lloyd%20in%20August.

[8] Lejtenyi, P. (2017). He Was a Top Officer in the Military, and Also a Serial Killer. VICE.

[9] McArthur, G., & Appleby, T. (2010, October 19). Col. Williams's murder victims pleaded for their lives before death. The Globe and Mail.

[10] National Academy of Sciences. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Sciences in the United States. The National Academies Press.

[11] SWGTREAD. (2013). Range of conclusions standard for footwear and tire impression examinations.

Ep. 14 - Andrei Chikatilo & Forensic Serology

[1] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Andrei Chikatilo: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from

[2] De Goede, O. (2019, May 29). Blood Types. Stanford University, The Tech Interactive [internet]. Retrieved from

[3] Felman, A. (2020, June 03). Everything you need to know about blood types. Medical News Today [internet]. Retrieved from

[4] Jenkins, J. Philip (2021, February 10). Andrei Chikatilo. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[5] Kelly, R.J., Rouquier, S., Giorgi, D., Lennon, G.G., & Lowe, J.B. (1995, March 03). Sequence and expression of a candidate for the human secretor blood group α(1,2)f ucosyltransferase gene (FUT2). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270(9): 4640-4649.

[6] n.a. (n.d.). Forensic Serology. New Jersey State Police [Internet]. Retrieved from

[7] Sensabaugh, G. (2016). Serology: Overview. Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 2nd Ed.: 254-256.

[8] The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.). ABO blood group system. Encyclopaedia Britannica [internet]. Retrieved from

[9] Willmott, D., Boduszek, D., & Robinson, R. (2018). A psychodynamic-behaviourist investigation of Russian sexual serial killer Andrei Chikatilo. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 29(3), 498-507.

Ep. 13 - Vince Li & NCRMD

[1] CBC News. (2008, August 06). Timeline to the Greyhound bus killing. CBC News. Retrieved from

[2] Department of Justice. (2015, January 7). The Review Board Systems in Canada: An Overview of Results from the Mentally Disordered Accused Data Collection Study. Government of Canada. Retrieved from:

[3] Lively, C. (2021, February 23). Fitness to stand trial [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, FRSC3338: Introduction to Forensic Psychology.

[4] Manitoba Review Board. (2010, May 31). A Disposition Review hearing of Vince Weiguang Li. Province of Manitoba Canada.

[5]n.a. (n.d.). Vince Weiguang Li. Retrieved from

[6] Stafford, B. “Timothy McLean Killing (Carol De Delley Interview). Aftermath of Murder: Survivor Stories. Retrieved from:

[7] Ternes, M. (2020, January 30). Competency [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, FRSC3338: Introduction to Forensic Psychology.

[8] The Canadian Press, Staff. (2015, February 27). Timeline of decisions in the case of Vince Li. Global News. Retrieved from

[9] Winnipeg Free Press. (2012, May 22). Greyhound bus beheader Vince Li: ‘I don't hear voices’. National Post. Retrieved from

Ep. 12 - Jeremy Steinke, Jasmine Richardson & YCJA

[1] (n.a.) Jasmine Rhichardon walks free a decade after she and boyfriend massacred her family [Internet]. New Zealand (AK): 20 Aug, 2016 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[2] All That’s Interesting. Jasmine Richardson Killed Her Family With Her “Werewolf” Boyfriend - Now She’s Walking Free [Internet]. n.p.: 21 May, 2018 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[3] CBC News. Medicine Hat girl guilty of first-degree murder [Internet]. n.p.: 09 Jul, 2007 [cited 06 February 2021], Available from:

[4] Government of Canada, D. (2015, March 05). Overview of the youth criminal justice act. Retrieved February 07, 2021, from

[5] Government of Canada, D. (2017, August 08). The youth criminal Justice ACT summary and background. Retrieved February 07, 2021, from

[6] Monacelli, A. Jasmine Richardson, Jeremy Steinke, and the Richardson Family Murders [Internet]. n.p: 06 Nov, 2020 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[7] Murderpedia Editors. Jeremy Allan STEINKE [Internet]. n.p., n.d. [Cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[8] Prison Kids Documentary

[9] The Star. Girl on trial for murder agreed to marry lover [Internet]. Toronto, ON: 30 June, 2007 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

Ep. 11 - Robert Pickton & Geographic Profiling


[2] Cameron, S. On the Farm: Robert William Pickton and Vancouver’s missing women. Canada: Vintage Canada; 2011.

[3] English, W. Geoprofile: Developing And Establishing The Reliability Of A New Geographic Profiling Software System [thesis]. Chicago (IL): Chicago School of Professional Psychology; 2008

[4] Interview of Robert Pickton [Internet]. SCRIBD. 2010 [cited 2019 Oct 19]; Available from:

[5] Introduction to Geographic Profiling for Crime Analysts . Presentation at Environmental Criminology Research Inc; 2012; Vancouver B.C.

[6] Grierson, B. The Hound of the Data Points. Popular Science. 2003

[7] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 341 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01

[8] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1212 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01

[9] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1447 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01

[10] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1448 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01

[11] R. v. Pickton, 2007 BCSC 410 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-02

[12] Rossmo, D.K., Geographic profiling: Target patterns of serial murderers [dissertation]. Burnaby (BC): Simon Fraser University; 1995.

[13] Rossmo, K. Recent developments in Geographic Profiling. Policing. 2012; 6 (2): 144-150 doi: 10.1093/police/par055

[14] Transcript of Robert Pickton Cell Video [Internet]. SCRIBD. 2010 [cited 2019 Oct 19]; Available from:

[15] Cell Plant Video:

[16] Book Link:

Ep. 10 - Guy Paul Morin & Wrongful Convictions

[1] Campbell, K. & Denov, M. (2003, 2004, 2005). Miscarriages of Justice: The Impact of Wrongful Imprisonment. Department of Justice Canada. Available at:

[2] Creet, J. (October 15, 2020). Christine Jessop’s killer identified: Solved cold case raises questions about genetic privacy. The Conversation. Available at: (

[3] Dwyer, J., Neufeld, P., & Scheck, B. (2001). Actual innocence: When justice goes wrong and how to make it right.

[4] Goodfield, K. (October 16, 2020). Christine Jessop’s killer helped in search, attended funeral and wake, family says. CTV News. Available at:

[5] Harland-Logan, S. (n.d.). Guy Paul Morin. Innocence Canada.

[6] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) About. Innocence Project. Available at:

[7] Innocence Project Editors. (n.d.). Causes of Wrongful Convictions. Innocence Project. Available at:

[8] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) DNA Exoneration in the United States. Innocence Project. Available at:

[9] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) Exonerate the Innocent. Innocence Project. Available at:

[10] Makin, K. (October, 2020). Guy Paul Morin Case. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Available at:

[11] Ministry of the Attorney General (March, 1998). Report of the Kaufman Commission on Proceedings Involving Guy Paul Morin: Executive Summary. Government of Ontario.

[12] Patriquin, Michelle. (2020, September 28). “The Admission of Forensic Science Evidence”, Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary’s University

** Guy Paul Morin's Succession of Images CD album

Ep. 09 - Norfolk Four & False Confessions

[1] Bikel, O (Writer & Director). (2010, November 09). The Confessions [Ep. 16]. In O. Bikel (Producer), Frontline. PBS.

[2] n.a.(n.d.). Norfolk Four (Derek Tice Danial Williams, Joseph Dick, Eric Wilson). Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project.

[3] Suderman, A. & Richer, A.D. (2018, December 03). Settlement reached in infamous ‘Norfolk 4’ case. Navy Times.

[4] Jackman, T. (2017. March 21). ‘Norfolk 4,’ wrongly convicted of rape and murder, pardoned by Gov. McAuliffe. The Washington Post.

[5] n.a. (n.d.). Derek Tice. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[6] n.a. (n.d.). Joseph Dick, Jr.. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[7]n.a. (n.d.). Danial Williams. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[8]n.a. (n.d.). Eric Wilson. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[9] Leo, R.A. (2009, September). False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 37(3): 332-343.

[10] Stinson, Veronica. (2018). “Police Investigations” Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary's University.

[11] Patry, Marc. (2020, October 20). “Police Interrogations” Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary's University.

Ep. 08 - Ivan Milat & Eyewitness Identification

[1] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Ivan Milat: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from

[2] Innocence Staff. (2020, April 15). How Eyewitness Misidentification Can Send Innocent People to Prison. The Innocence project.

[3] Knowles, M. (Director). (2019, December 3). The Backpacker Killer of Australia | Was Ivan Milat Born to Kill? | [Video file]. Retrieved December 8, 2020, from

[4] Nunn, G. (2019, October 26). Ivan Milat: Australia's 'backpacker killer' and unanswered questions. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from

[5] Patry, M., Stinson, V., & Smith, S.M. (2009). Supreme Court of Canada Addresses Admissibility of Posthypnosis Witness Evidence: R. v. Trochym (2007). Canadian Psychology, 50(2), 98-105. DOI: 10.1037/a0013767.

[6] Stinson, V. (2018). Lecture: Eyewitness memory in the legal system: Improving witness identification and interviewing procedures. Saint Mary’s University, Psychology and Law.

[7] Smalarz, L., & Wells, G.L. (2015) Contamination of Eyewitness Self-Reports and the Mistaken-Identification Problem. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), 120-124. DOI: 10.1177/0963721414554394.

[8] Wixted, J.T., Mickes, L., & Fisher, R.P. (2018). Rethinking the Reliability of Eyewitness Memory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(3), 325-335. DOI: 10.1177/1745691617734878.

Ep. 07 - Tiago Henrique Gomes da Rocha & Ballistics

[1] (n.a.)(2018, September 20). See the convictions of the vigilante appointed as serial killer, in Goiás. Goias.

[2] Eleftheriou-Smith, L. (2014, October 17). Brazilian serial killer suspect Thiago Henrique Gomes da Rocha, 26, 'confesses to 39 murders'. Independent.

[3] (n.a.)(n.d.). Tiago Henrique GOMES DA ROCHA.

[4] McCoy, T. (2014, October 17). The mystery of a Brazilian called ‘one of the world’s most prolific serial killers’. The Washington Post.

[5] Frasier, B. (2019, October 27). Introduction (Lecture).

[6] (n.a.). (n.d.). The History of Forensic Ballistics - Ballistic Fingerprinting. Incognito Forensic Foundation.

[7] (n.a.). (n.d.). Ballistics. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[8] (n.a.). (2018, September 19). NIST Updates Forensic Standard Reference Materials. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[9] (n.a.). (n.d.). Standard Bullets and Cartridge Cases. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[10] (n.a.). (2018, February 08). How Good a Match is It? Putting Statistics into Forensic Firearms Identification. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[11] (n.a.). (n.d.). Guide to forensic investigations: Trace evidence, ballistics, toxicology, and DNA. Forensic Colleges.

[12] (n.a.). (n.d.). Gun timeline. History detectives: special investigations - PBS.

[13] (n.a.). (n.d.). History of Ballistics. Minneapolis Public Schools.

Ep. 06 - Stephen Akinmurele & Fingerprinting

[1] Ashbaugh, D.R. (1992). Incipient ridges and the clarity spectrum. Journal of Forensic Identification, 42(2), 106-114.

[2] Fadl, S. The Cul-de-sac killer and his hatred of the elderly. n.p. 3 May 2020. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from:

[3] Lewis, J. New finger-print technology to be used at Dorset crime scenes. Buckinghamshire, UK. 26 October 2020. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from:

[4] Murderpedia Editors. Stephen Akinmurele [Internet]. N.p. n.d. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from:

[5] N/A. Stephen Akinmurele. (2020, July 21). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from

[6] N/A. Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Technologies: The Bertillon system. (2014, June 05). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from

[7] N/A. Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Biographies: Juan Vucetich (1858–1925). (2014, June 05). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from

[8]Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 5-6.

Ep. 05 - Unsolved Stories

[1] Abbott, K. “The Children Who Went Up In Smoke,” December 25, 2012. 172429802/

[2] Truesdell, J. 5 Things to Know about the Keddie Cabin Murders - and the New Hunt for the Killers [Internet]. n.p., 2016 [cited 26 October 2020]. Available from:

[3] All That’s Interesting. Inside The Keddie Murders: The Confounding Quadruple Homicide At Cabin 28 [Internet]. n.p., 2019 [cited 26 October 2020]. Available from:

[4] Jensen & Holes. The Keddie Cabin Murders [Internet]. n.p., The; 2020 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[5] Ashley, M. Investigators Allude to a Break in the Keddie Cabin Murders [Internet]. n.p., 2020 [ cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[6] Rojas, R. What Happened to Etan Patz? Unraveling a Nearly 40-Year-Old Case [Internet]. New York (NY): New York Times; n.d. [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[7] Remling, A. Etan Patz Timeline: What To Know About the 33-Year-Old Reopened Missing Child Investigation [Internet]. n.p.: International Business Times; 2012 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: investigation-439818.

[8] Editors. 6-year-old Etan Patz—boy on milk carton—goes missing [Internet]. N.p.:; 2020 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[9] Berman, T., & Sher, L. Etan Patz Case Reopened 31 Years Later [internet]. New york (NY): ABC News; 2010 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[10] Sapien, J., & Trudo, H. Missing: A Boy and The Evidence Against His Accused Killer. [Internet]. N.p.: ProPublica; 2013 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: killer#:~:text=Hernandez%2C%20according%20to%20court%20papers,for%20more%20than%20a%20decade.

[11] McKinley, J.C. Jr. Jurors in Patz Case View Suspect’s First Confession [Internet]. New York (NY): New York Times; 2012 [Cited 27 october 2020]. Available from:,right%20in%20the%20dark%20coat.&text=The%20tearful%20confession%20came%20after,had%20left%20key%20questions%20unanswered.

Ep. 04 - Toolbox Killers

[1] 48 Cal.3d 1046 (1989) 774 P.2d 659259 Cal. Rptr. 630 THE PEOPLE, Plaintiff and Respondent,v.LAWRENCE SIGMOND BITTAKER, Defendant and Appellant. Docket No. S004359. Crim. No. 21942. Supreme Court of California. June 22, 1989.

[2] Douglas JE., Burgess AW., Burgess AG., Ressler RK. Classification Manuel: A standard system for investigating crimes and classifying violent crimes. 2nd ed. San Francisco (CS): Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint; 2006.

[3] Furio J. Team killers: A Comparative Study of Comparative Criminals. New York (NY): Algora Publishing; 2001.

[4] Markman D., Bosco D. Alone with the Devil: Famous cases of a courtroom psychiatrist. New York (NY): Doubleday; 1985.

[5] Murderpedia Editors. Lawrence Sigmund Bittaker [Internet]. N.p. n.d. [Cited 29 September 2020]. Available from:

[6] Rasmussen E. South Bay serial killer Lawrence Bittaker dies at 79 of natural causes while on death row [Internet]. Long Beach(CA): 2019. Available from:

[7] Rasmussen E. Tool Box Killers: Roy Norris, who along with Lawrence Bittaker killed 5 teens, dies in Bay Area prison [Internet]. Long Beach(CA): 2020 [Cited 29 September 2020]. Available from:,and%20one%20count%20of%20robbery.

[8]Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 39-42

[9] Shar001. Transcript of Shirly Lynette Ledford audio recording and Bittaker’s 1989 appeal paper [Internet]. N.p., n.d. [cited 29 September 2020]. Available from:

[10] Steade S. Second of the Tool Box Killers dies in California prison [Internet]. N.p.,: 2020 [cited 29 September 2020]. Available from:

[11] The Associated Press. California killer Lawrence Bittaker, one of the 'Tool Box Killers,' dies at 79 [Internet]. San Quentin(CA): 2019 [Cited 29 September 2020]. Available from:

[12] Winerman, L. (2004, July). Psychological sleuths--Criminal profiling: The reality behind the myth. Monitor on Psychology, 35(7). Available from:

Ep. 03 - Paul Bernardo & DNA

[1] Butler JM. Advanced topics in forensic DNA typing: methodology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2012.

[2] Cheriyedath S. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Technique [Internet]. News. 2019 [cited 2020 Sep 16]; Available from:

[3] Cimino A. Women Who Kill: A chilling casebook of true-life murders. London (UK): Arcturus Publishing Ltd; 2019. Chapter 3, Karla Homolka; 33-41.

[4] DNA Casework [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 Sep 16];Available from:

[5] DNA Evidence: Basics of Analyzing [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 16]; Available from:

[6] Gel electrophoresis (article) [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 17];Available from:

[7] Goswami M, Lankenau A, Laughter A, Lineberry S, Lyons S. Paul Bernardo [Internet]. Radford(VA): n.d. [Cited 15 September 2020]. Available from:,%20Paul.pd

[8] Justice Archie Campbell. Bernardo Investigation Review [internet]. Toronto, ON: 1996 [cited 16 September 2020]. Available from:

[9] Murderpedia Editors. Paul Kenneth BERNARDO [Internet]. n.p. n.d. [Cited 15 September 2020]. Available from:

[10] Panneerchelvam S, Norazmi MN. Forensic DNA profiling and database. Malays J Med Sci. 2003;10(2):20-26.

[11] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 21-23.

[12] Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) [Internet]. National Center for Biotechnology Information. [cited 2020 Sep 16]; Available from:

[13] The Canadian Press. Timeline of events in the case of convicted rapist and killer Paul Bernardo [Internet]. Toronto (ON): 2017 [Cited 15 September 2020]. Available from:

Ep. 02 - Forensic Genealogy & the GSK

[1] BEE STAFF AND WIRE REPORTS. These are the crimes DeAngelo pleaded guilty to in Golden State Killer case [Internet]. Sacramento (CA): 2020 [cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:

[2] Editors. Golden State Killer Biography [Internet]. (n.p.): 2020 [cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:

[3] Dale L. Without a warrant: Police use popular family tree genealogy sites to solve murder cases | Laurelly Dale [Internet]. Toronto (ON): 2019 [Cited 08 September 2020]. Available from:

[4] Gafni M. Here’s the ‘open-source’ genealogy DNA website that helped crack the Golden State Killer case [Internet]. Walnut Creek (CA): 2018 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: rapist-case/

[5] Guerrini CJ, Robinson JO, Petersen D, McGuire AL. Should police have access to genetic genealogy databases? Capturing the Golden State Killer and other criminals using a controversial new forensic technique. PLOS Biol. 2018; 16(10): e2006906. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2006906.

[6] Margaritoff, M. Meet Joseph DeAngelo, The Elusive Golden State Killer [Internet]. (n.p): 2020 [cited 08 September 2020]. Available from: deangelo#:~:text=Joseph%20James%20DeAngelo%20was%20born,War%20for%20about%2022%20months.

[7] O'Doherty M. Genetic Genealogy and Police Investigations [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): 2019 [Cited 08 September 2020]. Available from:

[8] Phillips C. The Golden State Killer investigation and the nascent field of forensic T genealogy. Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 2018; 36: 186-188. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2018.07.010.

[9] Pine LG. Genealogy [Internet]. (n.p.): 2019 [cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:

[10] Ravani, S., Gutierrez, M., Lyons, J., Haigney, S. DNA match catches alleged ‘East Area Rapist,’ who murdered 12, raped 45 [Internet]. (n.p): 2018 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:

[11] Shapiro, E. The ‘Golden State Killer’: Inside the timeline of crimes [Internet]. (n.p): 2020 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:,counts%20of%20first%2Ddegree%20murder.

[12] THEDNAGEEK. Timeline of Investigative Genetic Genealogy [Internet]. (n.p.): 2019 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:

[13] Verogen, Inc.. Using SNPs and STRs for Human Identification [Internet]. (n.p.): 2020 [Cited 08 September 2020]. Available from:

[14] Wickenheiser RA. Forensic genealogy, bioethics and the Golden State Killer case. Forensic Sci. Int. Synergy. 2019; 1: 114-125. doi: 10.1016/j.fsisyn.2019.07.003.

[15] Zhang S. How a Tiny Website Became the Police's Go-To Genealogy Database [Internet]. Washington (DC): 2018 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:

[16] Zhang S. The Messy Consequences of the Golden State Killer Case [Internet]. Washington (DC): 2019 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from:

Ep. 01 - Introduction

[1] Martin DC, Dabbs GR, Roberts LG. Lemonade from Lemons: The taphonomic effect of lawn mowers on skeletal remains. J Forensic Sci. 2013; 58(5): 1273-1278

[2] Shelton DE. THe 'CSI Effect': Does It Really Exist? [Internet]. Washington (DC): 2008 [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from:

[3] Brown DL. Tulsa plans to dig for suspected mass graves from a 1921 race massacre [Internet]. (US):2020 [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from:

[4] 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre [Internet]. (US):(n.d.) [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from:

[5] 1921 Graves Test Excavation at Oaklawn Cemetery Complete [Internet]. Tulsa (OK): 2020 [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from: