Ep. 55 - Yang Xinhai & Forensic Traumatology

[1] n.a. Forensic medical traumatology [PDF file]. Retrieved from:

[2] Wyatt, J. P., Payne-James, J., Norfolk, G., & Squires, T. (2015). Chapter 5 - Forensic pathology of physical injury. In Oxford Handbook of Forensic TermsMedicine. essay, Oxford University Press.

[3] Patriquin, M. (2022). Sharp Force Trauma (SFT) / Cut Mark Analysis [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS.

Ep. 54 - Ongoing Cases: Lori Vallow & Jonathan Majors

Part One:

[1] Chappell, B. (2023, April 12). What to know about the Lori Vallow Daybell ‘zombie’ multiple-murder trial. National Public Radio (NPR). [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[2] Fetzer, R. (2022, July 20). Chad Daybell’s family says shallow graves of Tylee Ryan and JJ Vallow were not dug by their dad. CBS News - 48 Hours. [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[3] Gualtieri, A. E. (2023, May 13). “Doomsday mom” Lori Vallow Daybell found guilty of murdering her 2 children. CBS News - 48 Hours. [Internet]. Retrieved from: 

[4] Mannie, K. (2023, April 6). Lori Vallow trial: What to know about the ‘cult mom’ accused of killing her 2 kids. Global News. [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[5] McCarthy, L. (2023, May 12). Lori Vallow Daybell’s Journey From ‘Doomsday Mom’ to Convicted Murderer. The New York Times. [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[6] Teurfs, K., Dunn, L. T., Narvaez, C., Singer, M. (2023, May 18). What did Lori Vallow Daybell do? A full timeline of the “doomsday mom” case up to her guilty verdict. CBS News - 48 Hours. [Internet]. Retrieved from: 

Part Two:

[1] Bromwich, J. E., & Marcius, C. R. (2023, June 29). N.Y.P.D. has evidence to arrest woman who said Jonathan Majors hit her. The New York Times.

[2] Carras, C. (2023a, March 26). Jonathan majors’ attorney claims woman recanted assault allegations after arrest. Los Angeles Times.

[3] Carras, C. (2023b, March 30). Jonathan majors’ attorney releases text messages allegedly sent by woman after arrest. Los Angeles Times.

[4] Hammer, A. (2023, April 22). Jonathan majors claims new video proves he did not assault his girlfriend. Daily Mail Online.

[5] Italiano, L. (2023, June 27). Marvel’s jonathan majors files cross-complaint against his assault accuser. NYPD finds probable cause for arrest, sources say. Insider.

[6] Lamont, T. (2023, February 26). “I knew it would be ok”: Jonathan majors on his remarkable rise from troubled teen to Hollywood A-lister. The Guardian.,to%20Texas%2C%20his%20parents%20separated.

[7] Press, T. A. (2023, March 27). Jonathan majors arrested on assault charge in New York. AP News.

[8]  Rubin, R. (2023, March 30). Jonathan majors’ lawyer releases text messages he claims show woman taking blame for fight. Variety.

[9] Sgueglia, K. (2023, March 30). Jonathan majors’ attorney provides purported texts from woman in alleged assault. CNN.

Ep. 53 - Oklahoma City Bombing & Domestic Terrorism

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Timothy McVeigh: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murderers. Timothy McVeigh | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. 

[2] CSIS. The First U.S. National Strategy for Countering Domestic Terrorism. CSIS [Internet].,strategy%20is%20built%20around%20four%20pillars%20of%20action

[3] Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (2023, June 7). Timothy McVeigh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 

[4] FBI. (2020, November). Domestic Terrorism: Definitions, Terminology, and Methodology. FBI [Internet]. 

[5] FBI. (2016a, May 18). Oklahoma City bombing. FBI. 

[6] FBI (n.d.).Terrorism. FBI.

[7] FBI. (2016b, May 18). World trade center bombing 1993. FBI. 

[8] Government of Canada. (n.d.) Memorializing the Victims of Terrorism. Government of Canada [Internet].

[9] Jones, S.G., Doxsee, C., & Harrington, N. (2020, July 30). The Tactics and Targets of Domestic Terrorists. CSIS [Internet]. .

[10] Lambert, L. (2016). Terry Nichols. Encyclopædia Britannica. 

[11] Linder, D. O. (n.d.). The Oklahoma Bombing Conspirators. Profiles of the three Oklahoma City Bombing Conspirators: Timothy McVeigh, Terry Nichols, and Michael Fortier. 

[12] Pascus, B. (2019, August 10). What is "domestic terrorism" and what can the law do about it?. CBS News [Internet].

[13] Jones, S. (2022, February 17). The Evolution of Domestic Terrorism. CSIS.

[14] Wiegmann, B. (2019, May 08). Statement before the Committee on Homeland Security US House of Representatives at a hearing entitled “Confronting the Rise of Domestic Terrorism in the Homeland”. US Department of Justice.

Ep. 52 - Edward Snowden & Espionage

[1] Asp, D. (2022). Espionage Act of 1917 (1917). The First Amendment Encyclopedia. Retrieved from:

[2] Barnes, J. E. (2022, August 15). What is the Espionage Act and how has it been used?. The New York Times. Retrieved from: 

[3] Espionage. (n.d.). The History Press. Retrieved from: / 

[4] Espionage (2023, January 21). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved from:

[5] Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 (1917-1918). (n.d.). National Constitution Cener. Retrieved from:

[6] Espionage Facts (2023). SpyMuseum. Retrieved from:

[7] Kaufmann, A. (2022, August 12). What is the Espionage Act? What to know from its original purpose to who has been charged. USA Today. Retrieved from:

[8] Office of the Director of National Intelligence & Admin. (n.d.). The Espionage Act of 1917. INTEL. Retrieved from:

[9] Wilmoth, A. (2023, May). Espionage and Intelligence, Early Historical Foundations. Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. Retrieved from:

Ep. 51 - The Mystery of the Isdal Woman

[1] Dimuro, G. (2022). Spy, Murder Victim, Or Something Else? Inside The Decades-Long Mystery of the Isdal Woman. ATI. [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[2] Ferrarin, E. (2022, February 01). The Isdal Woman Cold Case: Mystery Over Her Identity Endures Over 50 Years. A&E True Crime Blog: Stories & News [Internet].

[3] Higraff, M. & McCarthy, N. (Hosts). 2018-2021. Death in Ice Valley [Audio podcast]. BBC World Service & NRK.  

[4] Higraff, M. & McCarthy, N. (2019, June 25). Death in Ice Valley: New clues in Isdal Woman mystery. BBC News [Internet].

[5] n.a. (n.d.). Isdal Woman. 

[6] N.a. (2022, May 06). Who Was The Isdal Woman and What Do We Know About Her Death?. Discovery Mysteries [Internet].

[7] Taylor, R. (2022, August 11). Who Is the Isdal Woman? The Crime Wire [Internet].

Ep. 50 - Victoria Climbié & Forensic Parasitology

Inquiry Link: The Victoria Climbié Inquiry ( 

[1] N.a. (n.d.). About Parasites. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[2] Castro, G.A. & Olson, L.J. (1996). Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Introduction to Parasitology. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[3] Cox, F.E.G. (2004). History of human parasitic diseases. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 18(2): 171-188.  [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[4] Fallis, A.M. (2015, March 04). Parasitology. The Canadian Encyclopedia. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[5] Government of UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2005, March). Wildlife Crime: A guide to the use of forensic and specialist techniques in the investigation of wildlife crime. Government of UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.*120bf5q*_ga*MTA2MzM4NjYxMC4xNjgyODYyMzcw*_ga_07NEEFKJ2N*MTY4Mjg2MjM2OS4xLjEuMTY4Mjg2MzM2OS4wLjAuMA. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[6] Jones, B.V. (2023, March 03). A brief history of parasitology. Veterinary Practice. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[7] Mason, M. (n.d.). Guide to Parasitology. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[8] Mitchell, P. (2023). Ancient Egypt and Nubia. In Parasites in Past Civilizations and Their Impact upon Health (pp. 20-41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9780511732386.003. [Retrieved 27 April 2023].

[9] N.a. (n.d.). Parasitology: Field of Study, Definition and Classification. Microscope Master. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[10] N.a. (n.d.). Robert Koch - Facts. The Noble Prize. [Retrieved 27 April 2023].

[11] N.a. (n.d.). Ronald Ross - Biographical. The Noble Prize. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[12] Sharma A., Bala M., & Singh N. (2018). Five Case Studies Associated with Forensically Important Entomofauna Recovered from Human Corpses from Punjab, India. J Forensic Sci & Criminal Invest. 7(5): 555721. DOI: 10.19080/JFSCI.2018.07.55572. [Retrieved 27 April 2023].

[13] N.a. (n.d.). Spotlight on: Parasitology. The Biologist Vol 61(4) p32-33. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[14] N.a. (n.d.). The Victoria Climbié Case Crime Files. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

Ep. 49 - The Srebrenica Massacre & Forensic Botany

[1] Alotaibi, S. S., Sayed, S. M., Alosaimi, M., Alharthi, R., Banjar, A., Abdulqader, N., & Alhamed, R. (2020). Pollen molecular biology: Applications in the forensic palynology and future prospects: A review. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 27(5), 1185-1190.

[2] Ezegbogu, M. O. (2021). Identifying the scene of a crime through pollen analysis. Science & Justice, 61(3), 205-213.

[3] International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). (2018). Srebrenica: No Room for Denial. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from

[4] Kasprzyk, I. (2023). Forensic botany: who?, how?, where?, when?. Science & Justice.

[5] Mildenhall, D. C., Wiltshire, P. E., & Bryant, V. M. (2006). Forensic palynology: why do it and how it works. Forensic science international, 163(3), 163–172.

[6] Smith, R. J. (2022). Srebrenica massacre. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from

[7] Summers, V. (2019, July 30). What is forensic botany? Sciencing. Retrieved from

[8] Thomson Reuters. (2008, July 21). Timeline: What happened during the war in Bosnia? Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from

[9] The University of Western Australia. (2011). Forensic Palynology Fact Sheet. Spice. Retrieved from 

Ep. 48 - The Craigslist Killer & Digital Forensics

[1] Editors. (April 2, 2014). Philip Markoff Biography. A&E; Television Networks. Retrieved from:

[2] Delp, E., Memon, N., & Wu, M. (2009). Digital forensics. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 26(2), 14-15. 

[3] Fraga, Kaleena. (October 23, 2021). Doctor, Gambler, Murderer: The Harrowing Story of Craigslist Killer Philip Markoff. All That’s Interesting. Retrieved from:

[4] Garfinkel, S. L. (2010). Digital Forensics Research: The next 10 years. Digital Investigation, 7, S64–S73. 

[5] Interpol. (n.d.). Digital Forensics. INTERPOL. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from

[6] Janos, A. (July 2021). Richard Beasley, Philip Markoff and Others: The Many Faces of the Craigslist Killer. A&E. Retrieved from:

[7] Kaur, R., & Kaur, A. (2012). Digital forensics. International Journal of Computer Applications, 50(5), 5-9.

[8] Pollitt, M. (2010). A History of Digital Forensics. In: Chow, KP., Shenoi, S. (eds) Advances in Digital Forensics VI. DigitalForensics 2010. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 337. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

[9] Robert J. Currie & Steve Coughlan, “Electronic Evidence in Canada” in Stephen Mason, ed, Electronic Evidence, 3rd ed (Toronto: LexisNexis, 2012).

[10] Ryan, D. J., & Shpantzer, G. (2002, September). Legal aspects of digital forensics. In Proceedings: Forensics Workshop.

[11] Sweet, L. J. (2009, Jun 22). Craigslist slaying suspect Philip Markoff pleads not guilty. McClatchy - Tribune Business News

[12] Understanding Digital Forensics: Process, techniques, and Tools. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2023, from

[13] Zbrog, Matt. (N.d.). Forensic Casefile: Stopping the Craigslist Killer. Forensics Colleges. Retrieved from:

Ep. 47 - Casey Anthony & Odour Analysis

[1] n.a. (n.d.). Central Falls Police K-9 Unit. Central Falls Police Department [Internet]. [retrieved 19 February 2023].

[2] n.a. (n.d.). The (not so simple) Science of Smell: Why Certain Scents Smell Clean. Nyco [Internet].,known%20as%20the%20olfactory%20bulb [retrieved 19 February 2023].

[3] n.a. (n.d.) What is LIBS?. Applied Spectra [Internet].,to%20other%20elemental%20analysis%20techniques. [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[4] Boroff, D. (2018, April 09). Casey Anthony Triumphs again as judge rules against Zenaida Gonzalez in defamation suit. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

[5] De Lange, C. (2011, May 17). Casey Anthony trial: Is the 'smell of death' evidence?. News Scientist [Internet]. [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[6] Escherich, K. (2008). TIMELINE: Caylee Anthony Case Captivates Country. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

[7] Esch, B. (Host).  (2020). Casey: Becoming the Most Hated. (episodes 1-4). [Audio podcast episode]. F01 Media. 

[8] Gibeault, S (2019, November 07)Why Does My Dog Sniff Everything?. American Kennel Club [Internet].,scent%20receptors%20in%20their%20noses [retrieved 19 February 2023].

[9] Girlboss videos. (2022, Nov. 29). What really happened" | Casey Anthony Peacock Documentary: Where The Truth Lies (2022). [Video]. Youtube. 

[10] Kross, B. (2023, January 30), Properties of Plasma. Supplemental Modules (Physical and Theoretical Chemistry) [Internet].,the%20fourth%20state%20of%20matter. [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[11] Kubota, S. (2022). Casey Anthony makes Bombshell claims about daughter's death in 1st ever on-camera interview. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

[12] Lance, N. (2008, October 28). Decomposition evidence in Casey Anthony's trunk, lab says. CNN [Internet]. [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[13] LAVIETES, B., & McDONALD, J. (2011). Casey Anthony CSI: Outline of Heart Decal On Duct Tape. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

[14] Liston, B. (2011, June 04). Hair in Casey Anthony's trunk may be Caylee's: Expert. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

[15] Lohr, D. (2017, December 07). George Anthony's suicide note. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

[16] Müller, P., Salminen, K., Kontunen, A., Karjalainen, M., Isokoski, P., Rantala, J., . . . Surakka, V. (2019). Online scent classification by ion-mobility spectrometry sequences. Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 5. doi:10.3389/fams.2019.00039. [Retrieved 19 February 2023].

[17] Rawlings, N. (2011, June 16). Casey Anthony CSI: A Triumph of High-Tech Forensics?. Time [Internet].,8599,2077937-2,00.html

[18] Staff, C. (2012, January 12). Casey Anthony claimed she got pregnant while passed out, says psychiatrist. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from

[19] Verheggen, F., Perrault, K. A., Megido, R. C., Dubois, L. M., Francis, F., Haubruge, E., . . . Stefanuto, P. (2017). The odor of death: An overview of current knowledge on characterization and applications. BioScience, 67(7), 600-613. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix046 [Retrieved 19 February 2023].

Ep. 46 - The Dancing Plague of 1518 & Psychogenic Disorders

[1] Andrews, E. (2015, August 21). What was the dancing plague of 1518? History.ccom [Internet]. [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[2] APA Dictionary definition of "psychogenic disorder".

[3] Bauer, P. (2023, January 12). Dancing plague of 1518. Brittanica [Internet]. [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[4] Boss, L. P. (1997). Epidemic hysteria: a review of the published literature. Epidemiologic Reviews, 19(2), 233-243 [Retrieved 06 February 2022]. 

[5] Donaldson, L J, J Cavanagh, and J Rankin. The Dancing Plague: a Public Health Conundrum. Public health (London) 111.4 (1997): 201–204. Web. [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[6] Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders. Baylor College of Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7, 2023, from,stress%20or%20some%20psychological%20condition

[7] Jones, T. (2000). Mass Psychogenic Illness: Role of the Individual Physician. Am Fam Physician, 62(12): 2649 - 2653. 

[8] Jones, T. (2000). What Is Psychogenic Ilness? Am Fam Physician, 62(12): 2655-2656.

[9] ed. Kuroski, J. (2022, June 11) Inside The Dancing Plague Of 1518, History’s Strangest Epidemic. All That’s Interesting [Internet]. [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[10] Pennant-Rae, N. (2018, July 10) The Dancing Plague of 1518. The Public Domain  Review [Internet]. [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[11] Stone, J., & Edwards, M. J. (2011). How “psychogenic” are psychogenic movement disorders?. Movement disorders, 26(10), 1787-1788.

[12] Waller, J.  (2009, February 21). A forgotten plague: making sense of dancing mania. The Lancet, 373(9664): 6224-625. [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

Ep. 45 - Impactful Psychological Experiments

[1] Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership and men; research in human relations (pp. 177–190). Carnegie Press..

[2] Behnke, S. (2009, April 1). Ethics rounds: Reading the Ethics Code more deeply. Monitor on Psychology, 40(4).

[3] De Vos, J. (2009) ‘Now That You Know, How Do You Feel? The Milgram Experiment

and Psychologization’. Annual Review of Critical Psychology, 7, pp. 223-24.

[4] McLeod, S. (2017). The Milgram Shock Experiment. SimplyPsychology. Accessed from:

[5] Milgram, S. (1965). Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human relations, 18(1), 57-76.

[6] Lof Der Zotheid Psychologenpraktijk. (2019, April 25). The Milgram Experiment 1962 Full Documentary [Video]. YouTube.

[7] Zimbardo, P. (1999). The story: An overview of the experiment. Stanford Prison Experiment. Retrieved January 5, 2023, from 

Ep. 44 - Luka Magnotta & Killing for Fame

[1] 5 characteristics of a narcissist. Best Counseling Degrees. (2022, November 30). Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[2] Azam, J.-P., & Ferrero, M. (2016, December 1). Killing for the sake of infamy: The HEROSTRATOS syndrome and what to do about it. De Gruyter. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[3] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Luka Magnotta: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murderers. Luka Magnotta | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[4] Brusie, C. (2017, June 27). Delusions of grandeur: How to spot them. Healthline. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from,real%20and%20what%20is%20not 

[5] Bushman, Brad. (2017). Narcissism, Fame Seeking, and Mass Shootings. American Behavioral Scientist. 62. 000276421773966. 10.1177/0002764217739660

[6] Chapman, S. (2019, May 14). Deprive mass murderers of the fame they seek. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[7] Delusion of grandeur. Therapy Blog. (2016). Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[8] Hanson, H. (2022, September 6). Canadian killer Luka Magnotta's life behind bars is unusual & he even married another inmate. Narcity. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[9] Healy, M. (2015, October 3). For mass shooters, achieving fame -- or infamy -- is a frequent driver. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[10] N/A (2020, December 13). Mass murderers and media coverage: The fame-seeking killers. The Andersonian. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

[11] Zarembo, A. (2016, June 18). Are the media complicit in mass shootings? Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from 

Ep. 43 - Samuel Little & Victimology, MO's, and Signatures

[1] FBI. (2019, October 06). FBI Seeking Assistance Connecting Victims to Samuel Little’s Confessions. FBI. 

[2] Abdollah, T. (2013, April 07). More cases connected to L.A. serial killer suspect. Star Advertiser.

[3] Beeman, A. (2021, April 15). Here's what we know about serial killer Samuel Little's childhood. Grunge.

[4] Beeman, A. (2022, September 21). Mary Brosley Was Samuel Little’s First Murder Victim. Heavy.

[5] Brogle, C. (2020, April 12). What Murder Did Serial Killer Sam Little Go To Trial For, Years Before Finally Facing Justice?. Oxygen True Crime.

[6]Diaz, J. (2020). Samuel Little, The Nation’s Most Prolific Serial Killer, Dies At 80. National Public Radio. Retrieved from:

[7] Douglas, J. E., & Munn, C. (1992). Violent crime scene analysis: modus operandi, signature, and staging. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 61(2), 1-11.

[8] Douglas, J. E., & Olshaker, M. (1998). The Most Dangerous Game. In Mindhunter: Inside the FBI's Elite Serial Crime Unit. (pp. 254-276). Simon and Schuster. 

[9] Fattah, E. (2000). Victimology: Past, present and future. Criminologie, 33(1), 17-46.

[10] Hazelwood, R. R., & Warren, J. I. (2003). Linkage analysis: Modus operandi, ritual, and signature in serial sexual crime. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 8(6), 587 - 598. 

[11] Karapetyan, M. V. (2020). The Causality of Serial Killers' Crime in Early Childhood [Conference presentation]. 10th International Conference on Humanities, Psychology & Social Sciences, Berlin, Germany.

[12] Morton, R. J., Tillman, J. M., & Gaines, S. J. (2014). Serial murder: Pathways for investigations. Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Justice.

[13] N.a. (2019, december 05). Samuel Little. Biography. 

[14] Smith, B.H. (2020, March 25). Who Is The Most Prolific Serial Killer In History? Everything We Know About Samuel Little. Oxygen True Crime.

[15] Texas Department of Public Safety (2021, December 01). New Details Released in Unsolved Samuel Little Murders. Texas Department of Public Safety.,10%20years%20and%2040%20miles

[16] The Associated Press (2020, December 30). Samuel Little, the man called most prolific serial killer in U.S. history, dies at 80. The Los Angeles Times. 

[17] TT. (2022, April 27). Samuel Little (Serial Killer Biography). Practical Psychology.

Ep. 42 - Cults III: Anthill Kids & Types of Cults

[1] A&;E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). A cult leader kills one of his followers. Retrieved from

[2] Anton. (2021, November 1). Categories of cults. Apologetics Index. Retrieved November 19, 2022, from

[3] Beeby, D. (2008, March 10). Cult Killer's Prison Art for sale on U.S. website. Retrieved from

[4] Best, Jonica V. Carlton, "Cults: A Psychological Perspective" (2018). Theses and Dissertations. 361.

[5] Blakeley, S. (n.d.).What is a cult?. Retrieved November 19, 2022, from

[6] CBC/Radio Canada. (2011, February 28). Inmate suspected in Cult Leader's death: RCMP | CBC News. CBCnews. Retrieved from

[7] CBC/Radio Canada. (2011, May 7). Fellow inmate charged in Cult Leader's death | CBC news. CBCnews. Retrieved from

[8] CBC/Radio Canada. (2012, March 5). Cult leader Roch Thériault's killer gets life | CBC news. CBCnews. Retrieved from

[9] Kaihla, P., Ross L., McLaughlin, A., & Came, B. "The ant hill kids." Maclean's, vol. 106, no. 6, 8 Feb. 1993, pp. 18+. Retrieved from:

[10] Morehead, J. (n.d.). What is a Cult? What is a cult? Retrieved November 19, 2022, from

[11] Palmer, S. J., Geoffroy, M., & Gareau, P. L. (2021). Chapter 11: Roch Theriault and the Holy Moses Mountain Family (“Ant Hill Kids”). In Mystical geography of quebec: Catholic schisms and New Religious Movements (pp. 247–266). SPRINGER NATURE. 

[12] Roos, R. (2020, May 20). The ant hill kids: Break your legs with a sledgehammer or go to Hell - CVLT Nation. CVLT Nation - The Home of Underground Culture. Retrieved from

[13] Vandonk, T. (Sept 10, 2020). BEHIND THE CRIMES: Murder, mutilation, abuse part of life at Ant Hill Kids commune. Retrieved from

Ep. 41 - Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh Communities & Forensic Epidemiology

[1]  n.a. (n.d.). Case Study III – Salmonellosis in Oregon. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 

CDC. (2022). Questions and Answers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:

[2] CDC. (n.d.). Epidemiology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

[3] Fedak, K.M., Bernal, A., Capshaw, A.Z., & Gross, S (2015, September 30). Applying the Bradford Hill criteria in the 21st century: How data integration has changed causal inference in molecular epidemiology. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 12(14). doi: 10.1186/s12982-015-0037-4. 

[4] Koehler, S.A., & Freeman, M.D. (2013, October 28). Forensic epidemiology: a method for investigating and quantifying specific causation. Forensic Science Medicine and Pathology, 9(4). DOI 10.1007/s12024-013-9513-8. 

[5] Vianna, F.S.L., Lopez-Camelo, J.S., Leite, J.C.L., Sanseverino, M.T.V., Dutra, M.dG., Castilla, E.E., & Schüler-Faccini, L. (2011, July 06). Epidemiological surveillance of birth defects compatible with thalomide embryopathy in Brazil. PLoS One, 6(7): e21735.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021735. 

Ep. 40 - Cults Pt. 1: Aum Shinrikyo & Biological Warfare

[1] CDC. (2020). Anthrax. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:

[2] CDC. (2018). Facts About Sarin. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:

[3] Frischknecht, F. (2003). The history of biological warfare: Human experimentation, modern nightmares and lone madmen in the twentieth century. EMBO reports, 4(S1), S47-S52.

[4] Guillemin, J. (2006). Scientists and the history of biological weapons: A brief historical overview of the development of biological weapons in the twentieth century. EMBO reports, 7(S1), S45-S49.

[5] Hooker, E. (2022). Biological Warfare. eMedicineHealth. Retrieved from:

[6] Kristof, N.D. (1995, March 23). TERROR IN TOKYO: THE OVERVIEW; Japanese Police Find Chemicals And Gas Masks at Sect's Offices. The New York Times.

[7]  Macwilliams, Mary Wheeler (2008). Japanese Visual Culture: Explorations in the World of Manga and Anime. M. E. Sharpe. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-7656-1602-9.

[8] N.A. (1995, October 15). Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction:

A Case Study on the Aum Shinrikyo. Senate Government Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations.

[9] N.A (2018, July 06). Aum Shinrikyo: The Japanese cult behind the Tokyo Sarin attack. BBC News.

[10] N.A. (n.d.). Chouetsu Sekai. Myanimelist.,sarin%20attack%20the%20previous%20year.

[11] N.A. (n.d.) Tokyo subways are attacked with sarin gas.

[12] Pletcher, K. (n.d.). Tokyo subway attack of 1995. Brittanica.

[13] Shwartz, M. (2001). Biological warfare: an emerging threat in the 21st century. Stanford News Service. Retrieved from:

[14] Simons, E. (2006) Faith, Fanaticism, and Fear: Aum Shinrikyo--The Birth and Death of a Terrorist Organization. Forensic Examiner, 15(1): 37-45.

Bonus Episode - Resources & Sources

NWAC (Native Women's Association of Canada) Elder Support Line | Canada-Wide

Available Monday-Friday 9AM-11AM EST & 1PM-3PM EST

Call 888-664-7808

First Nations, Métis & Inuit Hope for Wellness Help Line | Canada-Wide

If you’re experiencing emotional distress and want to talk, call the First Nations, Métis & Inuit Hope for Wellness Help Line: 1-855-242-3310. Available 24/7, Canada-wide. 

Network for Aboriginal Mental Health Research – Mental Health Programs for Aboriginal People in Canada | Canada-Wide

Shkaabe Makwa | Ontario

For more information about the program, please contact us at

Urban Native Youth Association: Native Youth Health & Wellness Centre | Vancouver, British Columbia

Wabano Centre | Ontario

Native Counselling Services of Alberta | Alberta

Healing in Colour | Canada Wide

The Nunavut Kamatsiaqtut Help Line | Nunavut

Available in Inuktitut and English, 24/7. Call 867-979-3333 or toll-free 1-800-265-3333.

Hope for Wellness Helpline | Nunavut

Available in all Nunavut languages, 24/7. Call toll-free 1-855-242-3310.

[1] Carlton, G. (2022, April 27). The dark history of Canada's 'Starlight tours' that saw police leave indigenous people to freeze to death. All That's Interesting. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from

[2] Carrier Sekani Family Services. (n.d.). Highway of Tears. Retrieved from

[3] CBC News. (2005). Who was Neil Stonechild? CBC News Indepth: Neil Stonechild. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from

[4] CTV Saskatoon. (2018, May 4). Man accusing Saskatoon police of conducting A 'starlight tour' hires lawyer experienced with the allegation. Saskatoon. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from

[5] Government of Canada. (2022, January 17). Reducing the number of indigenous children in care. Indigenous Services Canada. Retrieved from

[6] Highway of Tears Symposium Recommendations Report. (2006, June 16). Retrieved from

[7] Meagan Campbell. (2016, April 8). New light on Saskatoon's 'Starlight tours'. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from

[8] Mythicalmethods. (2022, June 3). The many colors of the goddess: Pana and Pinga; Inuit goddesses of the soul. HubPages. Retrieved from:

[9] N.a. (n.d.) Saskatoon police chief admits starlight cruises are not new.The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Sep 21 2022 from

[10] N.a. (2016, March 31). Someone at City Police Headquarters Deleted 'Starlight Tour' references on its Wikipedia page. Saskatoon StarPhoenix. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from

[11] Sabo, D. (2016, June 6). Highway of Tears. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from:

[12] The Canadian Press. (2018, December 19). MAN files complaint against police, says officers left him outside Saskatoon. Global News. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from

[13] The Honourable Mr. Justice David H. Wright, Commissioner. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into matters relating to the Death of Neil Stonechild. Publications Centre. (2004). Retrieved September 21, 2022, from

[14] Two Worlds Collide. (2011). National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from

Ep. 39 - Plane Crashes & Forvensic Engineering

[1] Causes of Fatal Accidents by Decade. Plane Crash Info. [Retrieved 08 September 2022].

[2] Government of Canada, T. S. B. of C. (2019, June 14). Swissair 111 investigation report - executive summary. Transportation Safety Board of Canada. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from 

[3] Gramlich, J. (2022, February 03). What the data says about gun deaths in the U.S.. Pew Research Center. [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 

[4] Gregersen, E. (2014, March 24). Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 disappearance. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 9, 2022, from 

[5] Kennedy, L. (2021, July 12). What happened to TWA Flight 800? Retrieved September 8, 2022, from 

[6] Langewiesche, W. (2019, July 1). What really happened to Malaysia's missing airplane. The Atlantic. Retrieved September 9, 2022, from 

[7] Lewis, R. (2017). TWA Flight 800. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from 

[8] Maltry, G.W. (2018, April 27). Airplane Crash Analysis. Engineering Design & Testing Corporation. [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 

[9] n.a. (n.d.). What is Forensic Engineering? Envista Forensics. [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 

[10] n.a. (2021, June 08). The Most Common Causes of Aviation Accidents. North Central Institute. [Retrieved 08 September 2022].

[11] Ranter, H. (n.d.). Aviation Safety Network > Statistics > worst accidents > 10 worst accidents in North America. Aviation Safety Network > Retrieved September 8, 2022, from 

[12] Swopes, B. (2022, July 17). Boeing 747-131 archives. This Day in Aviation. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from 

[13] Tikkanen, A. (2017). Swissair Flight 111. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from 

[14] Tyagi, V. (2021, March). Role of Forensic Science in Air Accidents Investigation. Journal on Contemporary Issues of Law, 7(3): 130-143. [Retrieved 08 September 2022].


[16] Plane crash and Fear of Flying Statistics. FlyFright. [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 

Ep. 38 - Alexander Litvinenko & Radiation Poisoning

[1] n.a. (2006, November 25). Alexander Livtinenko. The Telegraph.

[2] BBC News (2016, 21 January). Alexander Litvinenko: Profile of murdered Russian spy. BBC News.

[3] BBC News. (2016, January 27). Timeline: Alexander Litvinenko death case. BBC News.

[4] Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. (2012, July). Fact sheet: Polonium-210. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, January 7). Radiation studies: CDC - radiation: Polonium-210. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[6] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, August 6). Health effects of radiation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[7] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, July 28). Radiation and your health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[8] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, May 17). Radiation studies: CDC - what is radiation? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[9 ] Harding, L. (2016, January 19). Alexander Litvinenko: the man who solved his own murder. The Guardian. Retrieved from

[10] Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2020, November 7). Radiation sickness. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[11] Miller, C. W., Whitcomb, R. C., Ansari, A., McCurley, C., Nemhauser, J. B., & Jones, R. (2012). SPECIAL REPORT: Murder by Radiation Poisoning: Implications for Public Health. Journal of environmental health, 74(10), 8-13.

[12] Owen, R. The Litvinenko Inquiry.

[13] Sencen, L. (2015, July 21). Radiation sickness. NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[14] Staunton, D. (2016, January 21). The life and death of Alexander Litvinenko. The Irish Times.

[15] Simkin, J. (2013, May). Alexander Woollcott. Spartacus Educational. Retrieved from 

[16] US EPA. (2022, June). Radiation Basics. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

[17] Weiss, J. F., & Landauer, M. R. (2009). History and development of radiation-protective agents. International journal of radiation biology, 85(7), 539-573.

Ep. 37 - Ray Krone & Forensic Podiatry

[1] Burrow, J. G. (2016). The use of the Podotrack in forensic podiatry for collection and analysis of bare footprints using the Reel method of measurement. Science & Justice, 56(3), 216-222.

[2] Krishan, K., Kanchan, T., & DiMaggio, J. A. (2015). Emergence of forensic podiatry—a novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences. Forensic science international, 255, 16-27.

[3] Mukhra, R., Krishan, K., & Kanchan, T. (2018). Bare footprint metric analysis methods for comparison and identification in forensic examinations: A review of literature. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 58, 101-112.

[4] n.a. (n.d.). Ray Krone. Innocence Project. Retrieved from:

[5] n.a. (2012). Ray Krone. The National Registry of Exonerations. Retrieved from:

[6] n.a. (n.d.), Ray Krone. Witness to Innocence. Retrieved from:

[7] Nirenberg, M. (2016). Meeting a forensic podiatry admissibility challenge: a Daubert case study. Journal of forensic sciences, 61(3), 833-841

[8] Pal, S. (2017, May 22). From prints to prison: Forensic podiatry and Gait Analysis Gain Ground: Lower Extremity Review Magazine. Lower Extremity Review Magazine | Rehabilitation • Trauma • Diabetes • Biomechanics • Sports Medicine. Retrieved from

[9] Sherrer, H, (2003, March). Twice Wrongly Convicted of Murder- Ray Krone Is Set Free After 10 Years. Justice Denied Magazine, 2(9).

[10] Vernon, W. (2006). The development and practice of forensic podiatry. Journal of clinical forensic medicine, 13(6-8), 284-287.

Ep. 36 - Richard Ramirez & Stalking pt. 2

[1] Carlo, P. (2006). The Night Stalker: The Life and Crimes of Richard Ramirez. Pinnacle Books.

[2] Holmes, R.M. (2001). Criminal stalking: An analysis of the various of the various tyologies of stalkers. In J.A. Davis (Ed.), Stalking crimes and victim protection: prevention, intervention, threat assessment, and case management (pp. 12-29). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

[3] Mullen, P.E. (2000). Erotomania (pathologies of love) and stalking. In F. Flack (Ed), The Hatherleigh guide to psychiatric disorders, part II (pp. 145-163). Long Island City, NY: Hatherleigh Company. 

[4]Mullen P.E., Pathe, M., & Purcell, R. (2001). The management of stalkers. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7(5), 335-342. doi: 10,1192/apt.7.5.335.

[5] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 289-292.

[6] Russel, T., Holzman, E., Saidman, A., & Walsh, T. (Producers). (2021). Night Stalker: The Hunt For A Serial Killer. [TV series]. Netflix.

[7] Sheridan, L.P., & Boom, J. (2002). Stalker typologies: Implications for law enforcement. In J. Boon & L. Sheridan (Eds.), Stalking and psychosexual obsession: Psychological perspectives for prevention, policing and treatment (pp. 63-82). Chichester, UK: Wiley.

[8] Watt, M. C. (2014). ”Every Move You Make, Every Step You Take, I’ll Be Watching You”: Stalking. In Explorations in Forensic Psychology: Cases in Criminal and Abnormal Behaviour (pp. 111-141). [VitalSource Bookshelf 10.0.2].  Retrieved from vbk://978017672814.

[9] Zona, M.A., Sharma, K.K., & Lane, J.C. (1993). A comparative study of erotomanic and obsessional subjects in a forensic sample. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38(4), 894-903. 

[10] Zona, M.A., Palarea, R.E., & Lane J.C. (1998). Psychiatric diagnosis and the offender-victim typology of stalking. In J. R. Meloy (Ed.), The Psychology of stalking: Clinical and forensic perspectives (pp. 69-84). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 

Ep. 35 - Patricia Allen & Stalking pt. 1

[1] Best, J. (2016, June 6). Stalking. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[2] Criminal Code, R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46.

[3] Dawn Canada. Crisis Hotlines.

[4] Government of Canada (2021, December 08). Stalking is a crime called criminal harassment.

[5] Government of Canada. (2009, April 09). Criminal Harassment: Stalking.

[6] Gregson, C.B. (1998, January). California’s Antistalking Statute: The Pivotal Role of intent. Golden State University Law Review, 28(2): 221-263.

[7] R. v. Mills, [1999] 3 S.C.R. 668. 

[8] Spitzberg, B. H., & Cupach, W. R. (2007). The state of the art of stalking: Taking stock on the emerging literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 64–86. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.05.001. 

[9] Statistics Canada. (2020). Table 1: Police-reported crime for selected offences, Canada, 2019 and 2020.

[10] The National Association of Women and the Law (NAWL). (1993, June 01). Submission to the Legislative Committee on Bill C-126, An Act to Amend the Criminal Code and the Young Offenders Act.

[11] Watt, M. C. (2014). ”Every Move You Make, Every Step You Take, I’ll Be Watching You”: Stalking. In Explorations in Forensic Psychology: Cases in Criminal and Abnormal Behaviour (pp. 111-141). [VitalSource Bookshelf 10.0.2].  Retrieved from vbk://978017672814.

[12] Way, R.C. (1994). The Criminalization of Stalking: An Exercise in Media Manipulation and Political Opportuuism. McGill Law Journal, 39(379): 379-400.


Ep. 34 - The Red Head Murders & Forensic Taphonomy

[1] Byers S. Introduction to Forensic Anthropology. 1st ed. Boston (MA): Allyn & Bacon; 2002.

[2] CBC Radio. (2019). Canada’s 1st forensics body farm is coming this summer. CBC.

[3] Colburn C. Forensic Taphonomy. Presented at: Winona State University. Winona, MN. 

[4] Dautartas A, Kenyhercz MW, Viodoli GM, et al. Differential decomposition among pigs, rabbit, and human remains. J Forensic Sci. 2018; 63(6): 1673-1683.

[5] Ebersole, R. (2019). Down on the Body Farm: Unlocking the Forensic Secrets of Decaying Corpses. Undark.

[6] Forensic Anthropology Center [Internet]. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee. [03/12/20]. Available from:

[7] Goff ML. Early post-mortem changes and stages of decomposition in exposed cadavers. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 2009; 49(1-2):21-36

[8] Ruiz G. Enter The Disturbing World Of Body Farms. ATI. [Internet]. June 15, 2018 [March 12 2020]. Available from:

[9] Shields, B. (2021). Some of death’s mysteries explored at Canada’s only ‘body farm’. CTV News.

[10] Shirley NR, Wilson RJ, Jantz LM. Cadaver use at the University of Tennessee’s anthropological research facility. Clin Anat. 2011; 24(3): 372-380

[11] Zhou, C., Byard, R.W. Factors and processes causing accelerated decomposition in human cadavers–an overview. J Forensic Leg Med. 2011; 18(1): 6-9.













Ep. 33 - The Romanovs & Forensic Anthropology

[1] ABFA. (2018). Students. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from

[2] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2021, July 5). Paul Broca. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[3] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2020, January 3). Romanov dynasty. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[4] Byers, S. N. (2011). Introduction to forensic anthropology. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

[5] Coble, M. D., Loreille, O. M., Wadhams, M. J., Edson, S. M., Maynard, K., Meyer, C. E., ... & Finelli, L. N. (2009). Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis. PloS one, 4(3), e4838.

[6] Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2001). BRIA 13 3 a The Riddle of the Romanovs. United States. [Web Archive] Retrieved from:

[7] Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA). (n.d.). Retrieved December 08, 2020, from

[8] Ferllini R. & Wecht C. (2002).  Silent witness.  East Roseville, N.S.W:  Simon & Schuster

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Anthropology. In dictionary. Retrieved from\

[9] Editors. September 21, 2017. Romanov Family. HISTORY. A & E Television Networks. Retrieved from:

[10] Kolesnikov, L. L., Pashinyan, G. A., & Abramov, S. S. (2001). Anatomical appraisal of the skulls and teeth associated with the family of Tsar Nicolay Romanov. The Anatomical record, 265(1), 15–32.

[11] Sansom, Ian. August 27, 2011. Great dynasties of the world: The Romanovs. The Guardian. Retrieved from:

[12] The Romanov Royal Martyrs. (2019, November 5). Romanovs: The Missing Bodies | National Geographic. [Video]. YouTube.

[13] Ubelaker D.H. (2018). A history of forensic anthropology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 165, 915-923. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23306

[14] Ubelaker D.H. (2006). Introduction to Forensic Anthropology. In: Schmitt A., Cunha E., Pinheiro J. (eds) Forensic Anthropology and Medicine. Humana Press.

Ep. 32 - Al Capone & Forensic Accounting

[1] A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. [Internet].  

[2] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, January 21). Al Capone. Encyclopedia Britannica [Internet]. 

[3] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, February 7). Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre. Encyclopedia Britannica [Internet].

[4] Crumbly DL., & Apostolou N. (2018). America’s First (and Most Fearless) High-profile Forensic Accountant [Internet].

[5] Daugherty, G. (2021, October 29). How Al Capone spent his time in Alcatraz. [Internet].

[6] FBI. (2016, May 18). Al Capone. FBI [Internet].

[7] The TASA Group. (n.d.). Forensic Accountants: Why, When, and How to Hire Them [Internet].

[8] Hayes, A. (2020). Forensic Accounting. [Internet]. Editors (2019). Al Capone. [Internet].

[9] Roufa T. (2019). What Does a Forensic Accountant Do?. The Balance Careers [Internet].,fraud%20and%20other%20financial%20crimes

[10] Ministry of Finance of British Columbia. (n.d.). Investigation and Forensic Unit Policy and Procedures Manual.

[11] Tuovilq, A. (2020). Audit. [Internet].

[12] Zysman A. (n.d.). Forensic Accounting Demystified [Internet].

Ep. 31 - Steven Truscott & Forensic Entomology

[1] Anderson, G. (2000). Minimum and maximum development rates of some forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45, 824 - 832.

[2] Anderson, G. (2016, June 15). Entomology - A Primer. Canadian Society of Forensic Science. Retrieved from:

[3] Anderson, G. (n.d.). Forensic Entomology: The Use of Insects in Death Investigation. Simon Frasier University. Retrieved from:

[4] Benecke, M. (2001). A brief history of forensic entomology. Forensic Science International, 120(1-2), 2 - 14.

[5] Canadian Press (2007, August 28). Chronology: Key events in the Steven Truscott case. CTV News [internet].

[6] Cheryl Lynne Harper. Find a Grave [internet].

[7] Decomposition: fly life cycle and development times. (2019, January 25). Australian Museum. Retrieved from:

[8] Forensic Entomology. (n.d.). Crime Museum. Retrieved from:

[9] Forsyth, B. (2016, October). Case not closed: The enduring tragedy of the Harper – Truscott murder case. Canadian Military History [internet].

[10] Gregory, S. (2015, October 09). Lynne Harper murder still affects Lawson 56 years later. Seaforth Huron Expositor [internet].

[11] Gemmellaro, D. (2017, June 21). Forensic Entomology: Where Insects Meet the Law. Entomology Today. Retrieved from:

[12] Harland-Logan, S. (n.d.). Steven Truscott. Innocence Canada [internet].

[13] L.W. (n.d.). Bio: Steven Truscott. [internet].

[14] Makin, K. (2018, September 13). Steven Truscott Case. Canadian Encyclopedia [internet].

[15] Ontario Justice Education Network (n.d.). Timeline of Events for the Steven Truscott Case. [internet].

[16] Saferstein, R. (2018). Role of Forensic Entomologist. In Criminalistics: an introduction to forensic science (12th ed., pp. 122 - 123). Pearson Education.

[17] VanLaerhoven, S.L., Merritt, R.W. (2019, Aug). 50 years later, insect evidence overturns Canada’s most notorious case — Regina v. Steven Truscott. Forensic Science International, 301(Special Issue Cold Cases): 326-330.

[18] Yates, D. (2015, January 04). The search for Lynne Harper. Goderich Signal-Star [internet].

[19] (2020). Stephen Truscott -- Timeline. [internet].

Ep. 30 - Ted Kaczynski & Forensic Linguistics

[1] Anderson, J. & Brown, M. December 24, 2021. Unabomber Ted Kaczynski transferred from Supermax prison to a medical facility. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from:

[2] Agrawal, S. (2021, September 27). The unabomber case: Foundation of Forensic linguistics. The Critegal. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from,leaving%20no%20DNA%20evidence%20whatsoever 

[3] Ariani, M. G., Sajedi, F., & Sajedi, M. (2014). Forensic linguistics: A brief overview of the key elements. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 158, 222-225.

[4] Bailey, Holly. January 28, 2016. The Unabomber takes on the Internet. Yahoo!News. Retrieved from:

[5] Chase, Alston. June 2000. Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:

[6] Correa, Maite. (2013). Forensic Linguistics: An Overview of the Intersection and Interaction of Language and Law. Studies About Languages. 10.5755/j01.sal.0.23.5020.  

[7] Deutsch, Linda. May 4, 1998. Kaczynski Given Four Life Sentences. Associated Press. Retrieved from:

[8] Drake, Phil. April 2, 2021. Unabomber Ted Kaczynski now held in ‘Alcatraz of the Rockies’. Independent Record. Retrieved from:

[9] Fadden L., Disner S.F. (2014) Forensic Linguistics. In: Bruinsma G., Weisburd D. (eds) Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Springer, New York, NY. 

[10] FBI. April 2, 2021. The Words of a Killer: How the Unabomber’s Writings Helped Lead Investigators to His Door 25 Years Ago. Retrieved from:

[11] FBI. n.d. The Unabomber. Retrieved from:

[12] Editors. August 21, 2018. Unabomber (Ted Kaczynski). History, A&E Publishers. Retrieved from:

[13] Hollien, Harry. (2012). About forensic phonetics. Linguistica. 52. 27. 10.4312/linguistica.52.1.27-53. 

[14] n.a. May 25, 2016. Unabomber Too Ill to Recognize Illness. Treatment Advocacy Center. Retrieved from:

[15] n.a. 2021. TED KACZYNSKI: THE UNABOMBER. Crime Museum. Retrieved from:

[16] Ray, Michael. n.d. Ted Kaczynski American criminal. Britannica. Retrieved from:

[17] Sudjana, E. T. S., & Fitri, N. (2013). Kurt Cobain’s Suicide Note Case: Forensic Linguistic Profiling Analysis. International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 6(4). Retrieved from  

[19] Svartvik, J. (1968). The Evans Statements. University of Goteburg.

[18] Turchie, T. D. (1996, April 3). Search Warrant Affidavit. United States District Court Montana. 

Ep. 29 - Lindbergh Kidnapping & Document Examination

[1] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, January 31). Charles Lindbergh. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[2] Canadian Centre for Forensic Science. (n.d.). Documents. Canadian Centre for Forensic Science.

[3] FBI. (2016, May 18). Lindbergh kidnapping. FBI. Retrieved February 1, 2022, from

[4] Kidnapping and trial. Minnesota Historical Society. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2022, from

[5] National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC). (n.d.). A Simplified Guide To Forensic Document Examination. National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC).

[6] Norwitch Document Laboratory. (2019, June). Indented Writing. Norwitch Document Laboratory.

[7] Ray, M. (2021, February 22). Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[8] Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination, SWGDOC (2018, March 12). What Does a Forensic Document Examiner Do?. Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination, SWGDOC.

Ep. 28 - Mark Twitchell & Blood Pattern Analysis

[1] BCA. (n.d.). Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Retrieved from:

[2] Bennett, D. (2011, March 21). Wife of accused killer thought he was with shrink. CTV News.

[3] CBC News. (2011, April 05). Twitchell directed police to remains. CBC News.

[4] CBC News. (2011, March 22). Slain man called friend after garage visit, Twitchell jury told. CBC News.

[5] CBS News Editors. (2012, July 10). Mark Twitchell: A closer look at the evidence. CBS News.

[6] Frasier, B. (2019, November 26). Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. FRSC 2200: Basic Sciences for Forensics. Halifax; Nova Scotia.

[7] Gelinas, B. (2011, April 01). Bio: House of Cards crew. Edmonton Journal.

[8] Gelinas, B. (2011, March 15). Bio - Mark Andrew Twitchell. Edmonton Journal.

[9] Habib, A. (2019, September). Crime Scene Investigations. FRSC 2200: Basic Sciences for Forensics. Halifax; Nova Scotia.

[10] Naves, A.W. (2021, June 19). The Dexter Killer – Mark Twitchell. Medium.

[11] Peschel, O., Kunz, S. N., Rothschild, M. A., & Mützel, E. (2011). Blood stain pattern analysis. Forensic science, medicine, and pathology, 7(3), 257-270.

[12] PhysicsWorld. (2019, October 17). The physics of blood spatter. IOP Publishing. Retrieved from:

[13] Thompson, E. (2018, 22 March). The Dexter Killer – Mark Twitchell. Morbidology.

[14] WIRED. (2020, January 30). Forensics Expert Explains How to Analyze Bloodstain Patterns [Video]. Youtube.

Ep. 27 - Jim Jones & Forensic Toxicology

[1] Brosseau, C. (2020, March). Introduction to Forensic Toxicology. FRSC 2201. Halifax; Nova Scotia. 

[2] Carter, T. (2013, July 25). Murder or Suicide: What I Saw. Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Retrieved from:

[3] Citroner, G. (2018, September 17). Cyanide poisoning: Symptoms, treatment, complications, and more. Healthline. Retrieved December 23, 2021, from

[4] Conroy, O. J. (2018, November 17). An apocalyptic cult, 900 dead: remembering the Jonestown massacre, 40 years on. The Guardian. Retrieved from:

[5] Editors. (2010, October 18). Jonestown. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved from:

[6] Jonestown. FBI. Retrieved from:

[7] N.a. (2008, November 13). Inside the Jonestown massacre. CNN. Retrieved from:

[8] Real Stories. (2018, March 27). The Jonestown Massacre: Paradise Lost (Cult Documentary) [Video]. Youtube.

[9] Saferstein, R. (2018). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science (12th ed.). Pearson. 

[10] Shsucj. (2012). Forensic research extends detection of cyanide poisoning. EurekAlert! Retrieved December 23, 2021, from

[11] Stephen N. Vogel, Thomas R. Sultan & Raymond P. Ten Eyck (1981) Cyanide Poisoning, Clinical Toxicology, 18:3, 367-383, DOI: 10.3109/15563658108990043

[12] Valiente, A. & DelaRosa, M. (2018, September 28). 40 years after the Jonestown massacre: Jim Jones' surviving sons on what they think of their father, the Peoples Temple today. abcNEWS. Retrieved from:

Ep. 26 - Feral People & the National Parks Conspiracy

[1] National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs)

[2] National Park Service Cold Cases

[3] Missing in the United States Map

[4] asantos16. (2013). Psychology of language flashcards | Quizlet. Quizlet. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[5] Brittanica Editors. (2021, September 30). National Park. Brittanica.

[6] Brogaard, B. (2017, July 10). The feral child nicknamed Genie | psychology Today Canada. Psychology Today. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[7] Cherry, K. (2021, February 26). The story of "Genie," a child deprived of nearly all human contact. Verywell Mind. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[8] Cook, B. (2021, May). Are there feral people in national parks? Behind TikTok's cannibal claims. THe Focus.

[9] (1969). Dennis Lloyd Martin Disappearance Case File. National Park Service.

[10] Dark Tales. (2020, June 04). The Disappearance of Dennis Martin. Dark Tales.

[11] Ferris, George C. (3 June 1902). Sanichar the Wolf-Boy of India (PDF). New York City. p. 20.

[12] Fredriksson, T. (2021, April 18). Tarzan was lord William Charles Midlin, 14th Earl of Streatham. Undersökande Tomas Fredriksson. Retrieved November 24, 2021, from

[13] Hussain, F. (2017, April 8). Raised by animals. DAWN.COM. Retrieved November 24, 2021, from

[14] James, S. (2008, May 19). Raised by a Tyrant, Suffering a Sibling's Abuse. ABC News. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[15] Jarman, M. (2019, January 2). feral children. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[16] Karomo, C. (2021, May 6). Where is Genie Wiley now in 2021? - the secrets about her healthcare exposed. TheNetline. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from

[17] Lakin, M. (2019, June 06). Missing in the Smokies: Dennis Martin's disappearance still haunts park, 52 years later. Knox News.

[18] Macdonald, F. (2015, October 12). Feral: The children raised by wolves. BBC Culture. Retrieved November 23, 2021, from

[19] Nova (1997). Genie: Secret of the Wild Child [Film].

[20] Spitznagel, E. (2020, July 04). Why hundreds of people vanish into the American wilderness. New York Post.

[21] Zak M. (2015). A Book Like Rain in the Desert. Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature 53(2), 66-73. doi:10.1353/bkb.2015.0035.

Ep. 25 - Wayne Boden & Forensic Odontology

[1] AAFS. (n.d.). Odontology. American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Retrieved from:

[2] Adebowale, T. (2020, April 22). Here's What Happened to Dr. Michael West From the Innocence Files. Pulse. Retrieved from:

[3] CIP. (n.d.). Bite Mark Evidence. California Innocence Project Retrieved from:

[4] Divakar, K. P. (2017). Forensic Odontology: The New Dimension in Dental Analysis. International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS, 13(1), 1-5.

[5] Selby, D. (2020, April 26). Why Bite Mark Evidence Should Never Be Used in Criminal Trials. Innocence Project. Retrieved from:

[6] Souviron, R., & Haller, L. (2017, December). Bite mark evidence: bite mark analysis is not the same as bite mark comparison or matching or identification. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 4(3); 617 - 622.

[7] UMSOD. (n.d.). Early Forensic Odontology. National Museum of Dentistry. Retrieved from:

Ep. 24 - Anatoly Moskvin & Mummies

[1] BBC News. (2012, March 6). Russian 'grave robber made dolls from girls' corpses'. BBC News. Retrieved from:

[2] Byers, S. (2011). Introduction to Forensic Anthropology (4th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.

[3] DeLong, W. (2019, February 11). Anatoly Moskvin's Parents Thought He Collected Vintage Dolls - They Were Really Young Mummified Girls. All That's Interesting. Retrieved from:

[4] Egyptian mummies. Smithsonian Institution. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

[5] Ferllini, R. (2002). Silent Witness. NY: Firefly Books. 

[6] Garlinghouse, T. (2020, July 15). Mummification: The lost art of embalming the dead. LiveScience. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

[7] Gazeta, R. (2012, January 19). The investigator spoke about high-profile cases. [Interview]. RGRU. Retrieved from:

[8] Investigative Department. (2013, February 27). In the Nizhny Novgorod region, compulsory medical measures will be applied to a man who has committed desecration of the bodies of the deceased and the places of their burial. Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation for the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Retrieved from:

[9] Reddy, K., & Lowenstein, E. J. (2011). Forensics in dermatology: part I. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 64(5), 801-808.

[10] Stewart, W. (2020, November 2). Russian graverobber who was locked up for stealing 29 girls' corpses or his 'doll collection' refuses to apologise to their parents as he appeals for release - so he can move in with his new girlfriend. DailyMail. Retrieved from:

[11] Sudakov, D. (2018, October 25). Man accused of making 26 life-size dolls from dead girls' body. Retrieved from:

[12] The case of necropolis Moskvin postponed until June 26. (2015, June 18). Crime Chronical NN. Retrieved from:

[13] Welcome to the story about Tollund Man. Museum Silkeborg. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

[14] 7NEWS. (2020, November 7). Russian man lived with girls' mummified corpses, turned them into 'dolls'. 7NEWS. Retrieved from:

Ep. 23 - Unsolved Serial Killers

[1] Badal, J. (2016, December 2). Torso murders. Cleveland Police Museum. 

[2] Bennett, E. (29 May 2021). The notorious and eerie unsolved mystery of killer dubbed 'Jack the Stripper'. My London [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 

[3] Boyle, C. (n.d.) Long Island Serial Killer: A Deeper Look Into the Gilgo Beach Murders. Retrieved from:

[4] Cheng, P., & Millman, J. (Jan. 16, 2020). Eerie Crime Scene Photo Offers 1st Public Insight Into Possible Gilgo Beach Killer. NBC New York. Retrieved from:

[5] Crime Investigation. (n.d.). Jack the Stripper’ and the Hammersmith Murders. Crime Investigation [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 

[6] DeMarco, L. (2018, October 13). Cleveland's infamous Torso Murders: 80 years later, the fascination endures (vintage photos). cleveland.

[7] Fernandez, M., Tim, S. (Apr. 17, 2011). Officer and His Dog Play Key Role in Hunt for Remains. New York Times. Retrieved from:

[8] Green, L. (Sept. 12, 2017). Long Island carpenter convicted of killing two prostitutes eyed in at least one of the unsolved Gilgo Beach murders. New York Daily News. Retrieved from:

[9] Hewitt, L. (n.d.) Jack the Stripper: Hammersmith Nude Murders. Historic Mysteries [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 

[10] Killoran, E. (Dec. 15, 2016). Why Hasn’t the Long Island Serial Killer Case Been Solved? Rolling Stone. Retrieved from:

[11] Mead, J. C. (Dec. 14, 2003). 4 Bodies Leave Hamlet On Edge. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

[12] Mead, Julia C. (Feb. 8, 2004). A Manorville Body Is Identified. The New York Times. Retrieved from:


[14] Pelisek, C. (Nov. 7, 2016). Long Island Serial Killer: How Close Are Police to Catching the Suspect — or Suspects? Retrieved from:

[15] Pelisek, C. (Mar. 1, 2021). New discovery+ series tackles decade-old long island serial murders. Retrieved from:

[16] Rashbaum, W. K., Goldstein, J. (Apr. 8, 2011). Prostitutes' killer seen as versed in police techniques. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

[17] Schram, J., Algar, S., & Tacopino, J. (Dec. 12, 2015). Busted ex-police chief blocked FBI probe of Gilgo Beach murders. New York Post. Retrieved from:

[18] Swenson, K. (2021, January 7). Frank Dolezal's name cleared in Torso Murders. Cleveland Scene.

[19] The Killing Season. A&E Network. November 5, 2016. Josh Zeman and Rachel Mills.

[20] The Ministry of History. (28 Jan 2021). The Hammersmith Murders. The Ministry of History [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 

[21] The Newsroom. (13 Feb 2019). MURDERED BY A SERIAL KILLER: ‘Free-spirited’ and ‘beautiful’ Blackpool girl Helene was victim of evil Jack the Stripper. The Gazette [internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 06 Sep 2021). 

[22] Torso murders: Encyclopedia of cleveland history: Case western reserve university. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History | Case Western Reserve University. (2020, November 11).

[23] Torres, E. (Feb. 2, 2020). What we know and don't about Long Island’s suspected serial killer case. ABC News. Retrieved from:

[24] VICE Editors. (Feb.3, 2016) Inside the Bizarre, Unsolved Case of the Long Island Serial Killer. VICE. Retrieved from:

Ep. 22 - Fred & Rosemary West

[1] Cawthorne, N. (2007). The House of Horrors. In Serial Killers and Mass Murderers: Profiles of the World's Most Barbaric Criminals (p. 272-304). Ulysses Press.  

[2]Hickey, E. W. (2002). Serial murderers and their victims (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. 

[3] Hickey, E. (2003). Team killers. In Encyclopedia of murder and violent crime (Vol. 1, pp. 463-466). SAGE Publications, Inc.,

[4] Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns, and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 1–11.

[5] Ramsland, K. (2014, July). Partners in Crime. Psychology Today.

[6] Silvio, H., McCloskey, K., & Ramos-Grenier, J. (2006). Theoretical consideration of female sexual predator serial killers in the United States. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 251–259. 

[7] Sounes, H. (1995). Fred and Rose: The Full Story of Fred and Rose West and the Gloucester House of Horrors. Warner Books (London). ISBN 978-0-7515-1322-6.

[8] Vronsky, P. (2007). Female serial killers: How and why women become monsters. Berkley Books. 

[9] Woster, Matthew, "Differences in Characteristics of Criminal Behavior Between Solo and Team Serial Killers" (2020). Dissertations. 463.

Ep. 21 - Nova Scotia's Notorious Past

Butterbox Babies

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Lila Gladys Young. Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021)

[2] Canadian Children's Rights Council (n.d.). The Butterbox Babies - The selling and murdering of Canadian Babies. Canadian Children's Rights Council [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).

[3] Livio, S.K. (n.d.). The Butterbox Babies - Horrific Canadian Child Rights Story: Survivors of dark episode in Canada's history trace their past. Canadian Children's Rights Council [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).

[4] (n.a.). (n.d.). Butterbox Babies. Ideal Maternity Home Survivors [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 23 Jul 2021).

[5]. Bottemiller, K. (21 Jul 2012) GV woman helps ‘Butterbox Baby’ survivors understand past. Green Valley News [Internet]. Retrieved from (Accessed 24 Jul 2021). 

[6] Hartlen, R. (1999). Butterbox survivors: Life after the ideal maternity home. Nimbus Publishing. 

Sydney River McDonald's Murders

[7] Benjamin, G. (2019, November 9). One of three men convicted in McDonald's murders awarded unescorted absences   - Halifax. Global News.

[8] Pace, N. (2018, August 20). McDonald's killer Darren Muise 'financially secure' and 'living a good life' on parole: documents - Halifax. Global News.

[9] R. v. Wood, 1993 CanLII 4535 (NS SC), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[10] R. v. Wood, 1994 NSCA 239 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[11] R. v. MacNeil, 1993 CanLII 3348 (NS SC), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[12] R. v. MacNeil, 1993 CanLII 4442 (NS SC), <>, retrieved on 2021-07-22

[13] Tattrie, J. (2017, September 18). Sydney River McDonald's Murders. Sydney River McDonald's Murders | The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Goler Clan

[14] Beltrame, J. (1986, March 13). Shame of ‘hillbilly’ incest forces Nova Scotia county into action. Ottawa Citizen, pp. A4.

[15] CBC News. (1998, November 8). Abuse victim fights to change law. CBC. Accessed from:

[16] Cruise, D., & Griffiths, A. (2017). On South Mountain: The Dark Secrets of the Goler Clan. Nimbus Publishing. 

[17] Duncan, J. (2018, December 14). 10 Dark Facts About The Incestuous Goler Clan. Listverse. Accessed from:

[18] Souerbry, R. (2019, July 23). The Goler Clan Spent Years In Their Isolated, Inbred Town - Until The Cops Showed Up. Ranker. Accessed from:

[19] Vickery, C. (2017, May 10). The Goler Clan 1986 [Video file]. YouTube.

[20] Wood, C. (1986, March 10). Follow Up: The scars of poverty. Maclean’s.

Ep. 20 - Lethal Lovers & Female Serial Killers

[1] Aamodt, M. G. (2016, September 4). Serial killer statistics. Retrieved 12 July 2021 from

[2] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Catherine May Wood: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Catherine May Wood Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[3] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Gwendolyn Graham: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Gwendolyn Graham Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[4] Bonn, S (24 Jun 2019). The Unique Motives of Female Serial Killers. Psychology Today [Internet]. (Accessed 12 Jul 2021). 

[5] Cottier, C (03 Dec 2020).¸Female Serial Killers Exist, but Their Motives Are Different. Discovery. Retrieved from (Accessed 12 Jul 2021).

[6], R. S. F. (2020, January 16). Serial killer freed from prison 33 years after murders - as detective warns she may strike again. Daily Mail Online.

[7] Farrell, A.L., D. Keppel, R.D., & Titterington, V.B. (20 May 2013). Testing Existing Classifications of Serial Murder Considering Gender: An Exploratory Analysis of Solo Female Serial Murderers. Investig. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10: 268–288. DOI: 10.1002/jip.1392

[8] Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). Serial Murder: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investivagtors. Behavioural Analysis Unit, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime.

[9] Gwendolyn Graham. Crime Museum. (2019, November 8).

[10] Harrison, M.A., Hughes, S.M., Gott, A.J. (2019). Sex Differences in Serial Killers. Evolutionary Behavioural Sciences, 13(3): 295-310.


Ep. 19 - Albert DeSalvo & Forensic Hypnosis

[1] Albert DeSalvo. (n.d.).

[2] Anglin, R. J. (1967, January 13). Albert DeSalvo is 'Boston Strangler' - The Boston Globe.

[3] A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). Boston Strangler strikes again.

[4] A&E Networks Television. (2021, April 7). Albert DeSalvo.

[5] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Albert DeSalvo: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Albert DeSalvo | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[6] CBC News. (2007). Top court says evidence from hypnosis not reliable. CBCnews.

[7] Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (n.d.). Boston Strangler. Encyclopædia Britannica.

[8] James, ~ H. (2016, May 20). Green Man assaults. Hadena James.

[9] Lennon, T. (2017, January 18). Albert DeSalvo confessed to Boston Strangler murders but sentenced to life for other crimes. The Daily Telegraph. Albert DeSalvo confessed to Boston Strangler murders but sentenced to life for other crimes. 

[10] McEnroe, C. (2018, September 20). A PAGE FROM HISTORY.

[11] McGaughty, L. (Mar. 11, 2021). “Texas Rangers stop using hypnosis after Dallas Morning News investigation reveals dubious science”. The Dallas Morning News. Accessed from:

[12] Paterline, B. A. (2016). Forensic hypnosis and the courts. Journal of Law and Criminal Justice, 4 (2), 1-7.

[13] Patry, M. (Oct 6 2020). Hypnosis Lecture. Advanced Psychology and Law.

[14] Rodgers, G. (2018, May 12). Boston Strangler Archives. Dying Words.

[15] Ramsland, K. (Sept. 17, 2018). “Forensic Hypnosis: More Cons than Pros?” Psychology Today. Accessed from:

[16] Serena, K. (2020, April 24). This Man Confessed To Killing 13 Women - But Was He Really The 'Boston Strangler'? All That's Interesting.

[17] Winter, A. (2013). The rise and fall of forensic hypnosis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 44(1), 26-35.

Ep. 18 - The Cannibal Special

[1] Blanco, J.I. (ed.). (n.d.). Armin Meiwes. Murderpedia [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021). 

[2] Harding, L. (04 December 2003). Victim of cannibal agreed to be eaten. The Guardian, International ed. [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021).

[3] N.a. (03 December 2003). German cannibal tells of fantasy. BBC News [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021). 

[4] O’Connor, R. (09 February 2016). Armin Meiwes: Interview with a Cannibal documentary sheds new light on one of Germany’s most infamous murderers. Independent [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 17 May 2021). 

[5] Conklin, Beth. 1995. “thus are our bodies, thus was our custom”: mortuary cannibalism in an Amazonian society. American Ethnologist 22(1): 75-101.

[6] Conklin, Beth. 2007. “Cannibalism and the work of culture in bereavement: Commentary on Gottlieb.” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 55(4):1253-1264.

[7] Miller, D.W. 2005. “Love me, miss me, eat me.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, A15-A16.

[8] Vilaça, Aparecida. 1997. “Christians without faith: Some aspects of the conversion of the Wari′’ (Pakaa Nova)” Ethnos 62(1-2): 91-115. DOI: 10.1080/00141844.1997.9981545

[9] Vilaça, Aparecida. 2000. “Relations between Funerary Cannibalism and Warfare Cannibalism: The Question of Predation.” Ethnos 65(1): 83-106. DOI: 10.1080/001418400360652.

[10] Blanco, J.I. (ed.). (n.d.). Albert Fish. Murderpedia [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 15 May 2021). 

[11] Editors. (14 January 2020). “Moon Maniac” killer is executed. History [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 16 May 2021). 

[12] n.a. (28 November 2020). Albert Fish: Serial Killer Cannibal Who Ate Kids And Wrote To Their Parents About It (The Brooklyn Vampire). History Daily [Internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 16 May 2021). 

[13] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 134-137

Ep. 17 - Nelson Hart & Mr. Big Technique

[1] Jaksa, W. (2021). Probative vs prejudicial. [internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 07 May 2021). 

[2] Murphy, B., & Anderson, J. (2015). Confessions to Mr Big: A new rule of evidence?. The International Journal of Evidence & Proof, 20(1): 29-48. 

[3] Patry, M.W. (November, 2020). Mr. Big Technique [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, PSYC 4443: Advanced Psychology & Law. 

[4] R. v. Hart, 2014 SCC 52, [2014] 2 S.C.R. 544

[5] Smith, S.M., Stinson, V., & Patry, M.W. (2009). Using the “Mr. Big” technique to elicit confessions: Successful innovation or dangerous development in the Canadian legal system?. Psychology Public Policy and Law 15(3): 168-193. DOI: 10.1037/a0016962. 

[6] Stinson, V. (October, 2019). Mr. Big Technique [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, PSYC 3320: Psychology & Law. 

[7] Woods, S. (2014). A New Standard for “Mr. Big” Confessions: R v Hart . The Court [internet]. Retrieved from (accessed 07 May 2021). 

[8] Absence seizures. (n.d.). Retrieved May 07, 2021, from,by%20a%20period%20of%20hyperventilation 

[9] R. v. Hart, 2007 NLTD 74 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2021-05-07

[10] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Nelson Hart: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved May 07, 2021, from

Ep. 16 - The Phantom of Heilbronn & DNA Contamination

[1] AG Blogger (2020, October 13). Sources of DNA & RNA Contamination in the Lab. AG Scientific [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[2] Berlin, A.H. (2008). 'Woman Without A Face' leaves German police in the dark. The Sydney Morning Herald [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[3] Boyes, R. (2007). Junkie's needle may lead to woman serial killer. Independent News [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[4] Cale, Cynthia M., et al. “Could Secondary DNA Transfer Falsely Place Someone at the Scene of a Crime?” Journal of Forensic Science Sciences, vol. 61, no. 1, 2016, pp. 196-203,

[5] Diehl, J. (2008). Hunt for the phantom. Spiegel panorama [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[6] Geddes, L. (2012, January 11). How DNA contamination can affect court cases. NewScientist [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[7] Himmelreich, C. (2009). Germany's Phantom Serial Killer: A DNA Blunder. Time [Internet]. Retrieved from:,8599,1888126,00.html

[8] Okorocha, O. (2020). How DNA Contamination Can Alter Court Cases. Forensic Toxicology Expert Witness [Internet]. Retrieved from:

[9] Puritan Authors. (2016, June 14). Identifying and Preventing DNA Evidence Contamination. Puritan Blog [Internet]. Retrieved from:,samples%20getting%20mixed%20during%20sequencing 

[10] Schwark, T., et al. “Phantoms in the mortuary - DNA transfer during autopsies.” Forensic Science International, vol. 216, no. 1-3, 2012, pp. 121-126,

[11] Temko, N. (2008). Germany's hunt for the murderer known as 'the woman without a face’. The Guardian [Internet]. Retrieved from:

Ep. 15 - Colonel Russel Williams & Tire Tread Analysis

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Russell Williams: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Russell Williams | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.

[2] Blatchford, C., McArthur, G., Appleby, T., & Ladurantaye, S. (2010, February 9). Tire tracks led police to Williams. The Globe and Mail.

[3] Bodziak, W. (2008). Tire Tread and Tire Track Evidence. Taylor & Francis Group.

[4] Butts, E. (2016). Russell Williams Case. Russell Williams Case | The Canadian Encyclopedia.

[5] Campbell, M., & Westoll, N. (2020, October 22). Family, friends of Jessica Lloyd mark decade since Russell Williams received life sentence. Global News.

[6] CBC/Radio Canada. (2020, September 26). Col. Russell Williams timeline | CBC News. CBCnews.

[7] Davidson, J. (2010, November 5). Tire sleuth helped nab notorious sex killer. Whitehorse Daily Star.,-Sitting%20at%20an&text=He%20sidesteps%20further%20praise%20for,woman%20Jessica%20Lloyd%20in%20August.

[8] Lejtenyi, P. (2017). He Was a Top Officer in the Military, and Also a Serial Killer. VICE.

[9] McArthur, G., & Appleby, T. (2010, October 19). Col. Williams's murder victims pleaded for their lives before death. The Globe and Mail.

[10] National Academy of Sciences. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Sciences in the United States. The National Academies Press. 

[11] SWGTREAD. (2013). Range of conclusions standard for footwear and tire impression examinations.

Ep. 14 - Andrei Chikatilo & Forensic Serology

 [1] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Andrei Chikatilo: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from

[2] De Goede, O. (2019, May 29). Blood Types. Stanford University, The Tech Interactive [internet]. Retrieved from

[3] Felman, A. (2020, June 03). Everything you need to know about blood types. Medical News Today [internet]. Retrieved from

[4] Jenkins, J. Philip (2021, February 10). Andrei Chikatilo. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[5] Kelly, R.J., Rouquier, S., Giorgi, D., Lennon, G.G., & Lowe, J.B. (1995, March 03). Sequence and expression of a candidate for the human secretor blood group α(1,2)f ucosyltransferase gene (FUT2). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270(9): 4640-4649.

[6] n.a. (n.d.). Forensic Serology. New Jersey State Police [Internet]. Retrieved from

[7] Sensabaugh, G. (2016). Serology: Overview. Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 2nd Ed.: 254-256.

[8] The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.). ABO blood group system. Encyclopaedia Britannica [internet]. Retrieved from

[9] Willmott, D., Boduszek, D., & Robinson, R. (2018). A psychodynamic-behaviourist investigation of Russian sexual serial killer Andrei Chikatilo. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 29(3), 498-507.

Ep. 13 - Vince Li & NCRMD

[1] CBC News. (2008, August 06). Timeline to the Greyhound bus killing. CBC News. Retrieved from

[2] Department of Justice. (2015, January 7). The Review Board Systems in Canada: An Overview of Results from the Mentally Disordered Accused Data Collection Study. Government of Canada. Retrieved from:

[3] Lively, C. (2021, February 23). Fitness to stand trial [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, FRSC3338: Introduction to Forensic Psychology.

[4] Manitoba Review Board. (2010, May 31). A Disposition Review hearing of Vince Weiguang Li. Province of Manitoba Canada

[5]n.a. (n.d.). Vince Weiguang Li. Retrieved from

[6] Stafford, B. “Timothy McLean Killing (Carol De Delley Interview). Aftermath of Murder: Survivor Stories. Retrieved from:

[7] Ternes, M. (2020, January 30). Competency [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, FRSC3338: Introduction to Forensic Psychology.

[8] The Canadian Press, Staff. (2015, February 27). Timeline of decisions in the case of Vince Li. Global News. Retrieved from

[9] Winnipeg Free Press. (2012, May 22). Greyhound bus beheader Vince Li: ‘I don't hear voices’. National Post. Retrieved from

Ep. 12 - Jeremy Steinke, Jasmine Richardson & YCJA

[1] (n.a.) Jasmine Rhichardon walks free a decade after she and boyfriend massacred her family [Internet]. New Zealand (AK): 20 Aug, 2016 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[2] All That’s Interesting. Jasmine Richardson Killed Her Family With Her “Werewolf” Boyfriend - Now She’s Walking Free [Internet]. n.p.: 21 May, 2018 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[3] CBC News. Medicine Hat girl guilty of first-degree murder [Internet]. n.p.: 09 Jul, 2007 [cited 06 February 2021], Available from:

[4] Government of Canada, D. (2015, March 05). Overview of the youth criminal justice act. Retrieved February 07, 2021, from

[5] Government of Canada, D. (2017, August 08). The youth criminal Justice ACT summary and background. Retrieved February 07, 2021, from

[6] Monacelli, A. Jasmine Richardson, Jeremy Steinke, and the Richardson Family Murders [Internet]. n.p: 06 Nov, 2020 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[7] Murderpedia Editors. Jeremy Allan STEINKE [Internet]. n.p., n.d. [Cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

[8] Prison Kids Documentary


[9] The Star. Girl on trial for murder agreed to marry lover [Internet]. Toronto, ON: 30  June, 2007 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from:

Ep. 11 - Robert Pickton & Geographic Profiling


[2] Cameron, S. On the Farm: Robert William Pickton and Vancouver’s missing women. Canada: Vintage Canada; 2011. 

[3] English, W. Geoprofile: Developing And Establishing The Reliability Of A New Geographic Profiling Software System [thesis]. Chicago (IL): Chicago School of Professional Psychology; 2008

[4] Interview of Robert Pickton [Internet]. SCRIBD. 2010 [cited 2019 Oct 19]; Available from:

[5] Introduction to Geographic Profiling for Crime Analysts . Presentation at Environmental Criminology Research Inc; 2012; Vancouver B.C.

[6] Grierson, B. The Hound of the Data Points. Popular Science. 2003

[7] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 341 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01

[8] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1212 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01

[9] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1447 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01

[10] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1448 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-01 

[11] R. v. Pickton, 2007 BCSC 410 (CanLII), <>, retrieved on 2019-11-02

[12] Rossmo, D.K., Geographic profiling: Target patterns of serial murderers [dissertation].  Burnaby (BC): Simon Fraser University; 1995.

[13] Rossmo, K. Recent developments in Geographic Profiling. Policing. 2012; 6 (2): 144-150 doi: 10.1093/police/par055

[14] Transcript of Robert Pickton Cell Video [Internet]. SCRIBD. 2010 [cited 2019 Oct 19]; Available from:

[15] Cell Plant Video: 

[16] Book Link: 

Ep. 10 - Guy Paul Morin & Wrongful Convictions

[1] Campbell, K. & Denov, M. (2003, 2004, 2005). Miscarriages of Justice: The Impact of Wrongful Imprisonment. Department of Justice Canada. Available at: 

[2] Creet, J. (October 15, 2020). Christine Jessop’s killer identified: Solved cold case raises questions about genetic privacy. The Conversation. Available at: ( 

[3] Dwyer, J., Neufeld, P., & Scheck, B. (2001). Actual innocence: When justice goes wrong and how to make it right. 

[4] Goodfield, K. (October 16, 2020). Christine Jessop’s killer helped in search, attended funeral and wake, family says. CTV News. Available at: 

[5] Harland-Logan, S. (n.d.). Guy Paul Morin. Innocence Canada. 

[6] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) About. Innocence Project. Available at: 

[7] Innocence Project Editors. (n.d.). Causes of Wrongful Convictions. Innocence Project. Available at: 

[8] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) DNA Exoneration in the United States. Innocence Project. Available at: 

[9] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) Exonerate the Innocent. Innocence Project. Available at: 

[10] Makin, K. (October, 2020). Guy Paul Morin Case. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Available at:

[11] Ministry of the Attorney General (March, 1998). Report of the Kaufman Commission on Proceedings Involving Guy Paul Morin: Executive Summary. Government of Ontario.

[12] Patriquin, Michelle. (2020, September 28). “The Admission of Forensic Science Evidence”, Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary’s University 

** Guy Paul Morin's Succession of Images CD album 

Ep. 09 - Norfolk Four & False Confessions

[1] Bikel, O (Writer & Director). (2010, November 09). The Confessions [Ep. 16]. In O. Bikel (Producer), Frontline. PBS. 

[2] n.a.(n.d.). Norfolk Four  (Derek Tice Danial Williams, Joseph Dick, Eric Wilson). Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project.

[3] Suderman, A. & Richer, A.D. (2018, December 03). Settlement reached in infamous ‘Norfolk 4’ case. Navy Times.

[4] Jackman, T. (2017. March 21). ‘Norfolk 4,’ wrongly convicted of rape and murder, pardoned by Gov. McAuliffe. The Washington Post.

[5] n.a. (n.d.). Derek Tice. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[6] n.a. (n.d.). Joseph Dick, Jr.. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[7]n.a. (n.d.). Danial Williams. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[8]n.a. (n.d.). Eric Wilson. The National Registry of Exonerations.

[9] Leo, R.A. (2009, September). False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 37(3): 332-343.

[10] Stinson, Veronica. (2018). “Police Investigations” Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary's University. 

[11] Patry, Marc. (2020, October 20). “Police Interrogations” Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary's University. 

Ep. 08 - Ivan Milat & Eyewitness Identification

[1] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Ivan Milat: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from

[2] Innocence Staff. (2020, April 15). How Eyewitness Misidentification Can Send Innocent People to Prison. The Innocence project.

[3] Knowles, M. (Director). (2019, December 3). The Backpacker Killer of Australia | Was Ivan Milat Born to Kill? | [Video file]. Retrieved December 8, 2020, from

[4] Nunn, G. (2019, October 26). Ivan Milat: Australia's 'backpacker killer' and unanswered questions. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from

[5] Patry, M., Stinson, V., & Smith, S.M. (2009). Supreme Court of Canada Addresses Admissibility of Posthypnosis Witness Evidence: R. v. Trochym (2007). Canadian Psychology, 50(2), 98-105.  DOI: 10.1037/a0013767.

[6] Stinson, V. (2018). Lecture: Eyewitness memory in the legal system: Improving witness identification and interviewing procedures. Saint Mary’s University, Psychology and Law.

[7] Smalarz, L., & Wells, G.L. (2015) Contamination of Eyewitness Self-Reports and the Mistaken-Identification Problem. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), 120-124. DOI: 10.1177/0963721414554394.

[8] Wixted, J.T., Mickes, L., & Fisher, R.P. (2018). Rethinking the Reliability of Eyewitness Memory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(3), 325-335. DOI: 10.1177/1745691617734878. 

Ep. 07 - Tiago Henrique Gomes da Rocha & Ballistics

[1] (n.a.)(2018, September 20). See the convictions of the vigilante appointed as serial killer, in Goiás. Goias.

[2] Eleftheriou-Smith, L. (2014, October 17). Brazilian serial killer suspect Thiago Henrique Gomes da Rocha, 26, 'confesses to 39 murders'. Independent.

[3] (n.a.)(n.d.). Tiago Henrique GOMES DA ROCHA.

[4] McCoy, T. (2014, October 17). The mystery of a Brazilian called ‘one of the world’s most prolific serial killers’. The Washington Post.

[5] Frasier, B. (2019, October 27). Introduction (Lecture).

[6] (n.a.). (n.d.). The History of Forensic Ballistics - Ballistic Fingerprinting. Incognito Forensic Foundation.

[7] (n.a.). (n.d.). Ballistics. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[8] (n.a.). (2018, September 19). NIST Updates Forensic Standard Reference Materials. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[9] (n.a.). (n.d.). Standard Bullets and Cartridge Cases. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[10] (n.a.). (2018, February 08). How Good a Match is It? Putting Statistics into Forensic Firearms Identification. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

[11] (n.a.). (n.d.). Guide to forensic investigations: Trace evidence, ballistics, toxicology, and DNA. Forensic Colleges.

[12] (n.a.). (n.d.). Gun timeline. History detectives: special investigations - PBS.

[13] (n.a.). (n.d.). History of Ballistics. Minneapolis Public Schools.

Ep. 06 - Stephen Akinmurele & Fingerprinting

[1] Ashbaugh, D.R. (1992). Incipient ridges and the clarity spectrum. Journal of Forensic Identification, 42(2), 106-114. 

[2] Fadl, S. The Cul-de-sac killer and his hatred of the elderly. n.p. 3 May 2020. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from:

[3] Lewis, J. New finger-print technology to be used at Dorset crime scenes. Buckinghamshire, UK. 26 October 2020. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from:

[4] Murderpedia Editors. Stephen Akinmurele [Internet]. N.p. n.d. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from:

[5] N/A. Stephen Akinmurele. (2020, July 21). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from

[6] N/A. Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Technologies: The Bertillon system. (2014, June 05). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from 

[7] N/A. Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Biographies: Juan Vucetich (1858–1925). (2014, June 05). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from

[8] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 5-6.

Ep. 05 - Unsolved Stories

[1] Abbott, K. “The Children Who Went Up In Smoke,” December 25, 2012. 172429802/

[2] Truesdell, J. 5 Things to Know about the Keddie Cabin Murders - and the New Hunt for the Killers [Internet]. n.p., 2016 [cited 26 October 2020]. Available from:

[3] All That’s Interesting. Inside The Keddie Murders: The Confounding Quadruple Homicide At Cabin 28 [Internet]. n.p., 2019 [cited 26 October 2020]. Available from:

[4] Jensen & Holes. The Keddie Cabin Murders [Internet]. n.p., The; 2020 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[5] Ashley, M. Investigators Allude to a Break in the Keddie Cabin Murders [Internet]. n.p., 2020 [ cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[6] Rojas, R. What Happened to Etan Patz? Unraveling a Nearly 40-Year-Old Case [Internet]. New York (NY): New York Times; n.d. [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[7] Remling, A. Etan Patz Timeline: What To Know About the 33-Year-Old Reopened Missing Child Investigation [Internet]. n.p.: International Business Times; 2012 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: investigation-439818

[8] Editors. 6-year-old Etan Patz—boy on milk carton—goes missing [Internet]. N.p.:; 2020 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[9] Berman, T., & Sher, L. Etan Patz Case Reopened 31 Years Later [internet]. New york (NY): ABC News; 2010 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from:

[10] Sapien, J., & Trudo, H. Missing: A Boy and The Evidence Against His Accused Killer. [Internet]. N.p.: ProPublica; 2013 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: killer#:~:text=Hernandez%2C%20according%20to%20court%20papers,for%20more%20than%20a%20decade

[11] McKinley, J.C. Jr. Jurors in Patz Case View Suspect’s First Confession [Internet]. New York (NY): New York Times; 2012 [Cited 27 october 2020]. Available from:,right%20in%20the%20dark%20coat.&text=The%20tearful%20confession%20came%20after,had%20left%20key%20questions%20unanswered.

Ep. 04 - Toolbox Killers