Sources

Ep. 20 - Lethal Lovers & Female Serial Killers

[1] Aamodt, M. G. (2016, September 4). Serial killer statistics. Retrieved 12 July 2021 from http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/serial killer information center/projectdescription.htm


[2] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Catherine May Wood: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Catherine May Wood Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. https://murderpedia.org/female.W/w/wood-catherine.htm.


[3] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Gwendolyn Graham: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Gwendolyn Graham Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. https://murderpedia.org/female.G/g/graham-gwendolyn.htm.


[4] Bonn, S (24 Jun 2019). The Unique Motives of Female Serial Killers. Psychology Today [Internet]. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/wicked-deeds/201906/the-unique-motives-female-serial-killers (Accessed 12 Jul 2021).


[5] Cottier, C (03 Dec 2020).¸Female Serial Killers Exist, but Their Motives Are Different. Discovery. Retrieved from https://www.discovermagazine.com/mind/female-serial-killers-exist-but-their-motives-are-different (Accessed 12 Jul 2021).


[6] Dailymail.com, R. S. F. (2020, January 16). Serial killer freed from prison 33 years after murders - as detective warns she may strike again. Daily Mail Online. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7895921/Serial-killer-freed-prison-33-years-murders-detective-warns-strike-again.html.


[7] Farrell, A.L., D. Keppel, R.D., & Titterington, V.B. (20 May 2013). Testing Existing Classifications of Serial Murder Considering Gender: An Exploratory Analysis of Solo Female Serial Murderers. Investig. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10: 268–288. DOI: 10.1002/jip.1392.


[8] Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). Serial Murder: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investivagtors. Behavioural Analysis Unit, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. https://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/serial-murder#two.


[9] Gwendolyn Graham. Crime Museum. (2019, November 8). https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/serial-killers/gwendolyn-graham/.


[10] Harrison, M.A., Hughes, S.M., Gott, A.J. (2019). Sex Differences in Serial Killers. Evolutionary Behavioural Sciences, 13(3): 295-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000157.


[11] https://pdf.zlibcdn.com/dtoken/b5376483737eaa99bd0f07e08cd71334/The_New_Predator_Women_Who_Kill__Profiles_of_Fem_1000666_(z-lib.org).pdf

Ep. 19 - Albert DeSalvo & Forensic Hypnosis

[1] Albert DeSalvo. (n.d.). http://www.eaglehorse.org/home_station/hidden_stories/50s/desalvo/desalvo.htm.


[2] Anglin, R. J. (1967, January 13). Albert DeSalvo is 'Boston Strangler' - The Boston Globe. BostonGlobe.com. https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/1967/01/13/albert-desalvo-boston-strangler/siouY1ueoTLtxF3hwhqJDP/story.html.


[3] A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). Boston Strangler strikes again. History.com. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/boston-strangler-strikes-again.


[4] A&E Networks Television. (2021, April 7). Albert DeSalvo. Biography.com. https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/albert-de-salvo.


[5] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Albert DeSalvo: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Albert DeSalvo | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. https://murderpedia.org/male.D/d/desalvo-albert.htm.


[6] CBC News. (2007). Top court says evidence from hypnosis not reliable. CBCnews. https://www.cbc.ca/amp/1.642024.


[7] Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (n.d.). Boston Strangler. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Boston-Strangler#ref896677.


[8] James, ~ H. (2016, May 20). Green Man assaults. Hadena James. https://hadenajames.wordpress.com/tag/green-man-assaults/.


[9] Lennon, T. (2017, January 18). Albert DeSalvo confessed to Boston Strangler murders but sentenced to life for other crimes. The Daily Telegraph. Albert DeSalvo confessed to Boston Strangler murders but sentenced to life for other crimes.


[10] McEnroe, C. (2018, September 20). A PAGE FROM HISTORY. courant.com. https://www.courant.com/news/connecticut/hc-xpm-1999-03-03-9903030867-story.html.


[11] McGaughty, L. (Mar. 11, 2021). “Texas Rangers stop using hypnosis after Dallas Morning News investigation reveals dubious science”. The Dallas Morning News. Accessed from: https://www.dallasnews.com/news/investigations/2021/03/11/texas-rangers-stop-using-hypnosis-after-dallas-morning-news-investigation-reveals-dubious-science/


[12] Paterline, B. A. (2016). Forensic hypnosis and the courts. Journal of Law and Criminal Justice, 4 (2), 1-7.


[13] Patry, M. (Oct 6 2020). Hypnosis Lecture. Advanced Psychology and Law.


[14] Rodgers, G. (2018, May 12). Boston Strangler Archives. Dying Words. http://dyingwords.net/tag/boston-strangler/.


[15] Ramsland, K. (Sept. 17, 2018). “Forensic Hypnosis: More Cons than Pros?” Psychology Today. Accessed from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/shadow-boxing/201809/forensic-hypnosis-more-cons-pros


[16] Serena, K. (2020, April 24). This Man Confessed To Killing 13 Women - But Was He Really The 'Boston Strangler'? All That's Interesting. https://allthatsinteresting.com/albert-desalvo-boston-strangler.


[17] Winter, A. (2013). The rise and fall of forensic hypnosis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 44(1), 26-35.

Ep. 18 - The Cannibal Special

[1] Blanco, J.I. (ed.). (n.d.). Armin Meiwes. Murderpedia [Internet]. Retrieved from https://murderpedia.org/male.M/m/meiwes-armin.htm (accessed 17 May 2021).


[2] Harding, L. (04 December 2003). Victim of cannibal agreed to be eaten. The Guardian, International ed. [Internet]. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/dec/04/germany.lukeharding (accessed 17 May 2021).


[3] N.a. (03 December 2003). German cannibal tells of fantasy. BBC News [Internet]. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3286721.stm (accessed 17 May 2021).


[4] O’Connor, R. (09 February 2016). Armin Meiwes: Interview with a Cannibal documentary sheds new light on one of Germany’s most infamous murderers. Independent [Internet]. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/armin-meiwes-interview-cannibal-documentary-sheds-new-light-one-germany-s-most-infamous-murderers-a6863201.html (accessed 17 May 2021).


[5] Conklin, Beth. 1995. “thus are our bodies, thus was our custom”: mortuary cannibalism in an Amazonian society. American Ethnologist 22(1): 75-101. https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1995.22.1.02a00040.


[6] Conklin, Beth. 2007. “Cannibalism and the work of culture in bereavement: Commentary on Gottlieb.” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 55(4):1253-1264.


[7] Miller, D.W. 2005. “Love me, miss me, eat me.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, A15-A16.


[8] Vilaça, Aparecida. 1997. “Christians without faith: Some aspects of the conversion of the Wari′’ (Pakaa Nova)” Ethnos 62(1-2): 91-115. DOI: 10.1080/00141844.1997.9981545


[9] Vilaça, Aparecida. 2000. “Relations between Funerary Cannibalism and Warfare Cannibalism: The Question of Predation.” Ethnos 65(1): 83-106. DOI: 10.1080/001418400360652.


[10] Blanco, J.I. (ed.). (n.d.). Albert Fish. Murderpedia [Internet]. Retrieved from https://murderpedia.org/male.F/f/fish-albert.htm (accessed 15 May 2021).


[11] History.com Editors. (14 January 2020). “Moon Maniac” killer is executed. History [Internet]. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-moon-maniac (accessed 16 May 2021).


[12] n.a. (28 November 2020). Albert Fish: Serial Killer Cannibal Who Ate Kids And Wrote To Their Parents About It (The Brooklyn Vampire). History Daily [Internet]. Retrieved from https://historydaily.org/albert-fish-facts-stories-trivia (accessed 16 May 2021).


[13] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 134-137


Ep. 17 - Nelson Hart & Mr. Big Technique

[1] Jaksa, W. (2021). Probative vs prejudicial. [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.toronto-criminal-lawyer.co/probative-vs-prejudicial/ (accessed 07 May 2021).

[2] Murphy, B., & Anderson, J. (2015). Confessions to Mr Big: A new rule of evidence?. The International Journal of Evidence & Proof, 20(1): 29-48. https://doi-org.library.smu.ca/10.1177/1365712715613485.

[3] Patry, M.W. (November, 2020). Mr. Big Technique [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, PSYC 4443: Advanced Psychology & Law.

[4] R. v. Hart, 2014 SCC 52, [2014] 2 S.C.R. 544

[5] Smith, S.M., Stinson, V., & Patry, M.W. (2009). Using the “Mr. Big” technique to elicit confessions: Successful innovation or dangerous development in the Canadian legal system?. Psychology Public Policy and Law 15(3): 168-193. DOI: 10.1037/a0016962.

[6] Stinson, V. (October, 2019). Mr. Big Technique [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, PSYC 3320: Psychology & Law.

[7] Woods, S. (2014). A New Standard for “Mr. Big” Confessions: R v Hart . The Court [internet]. Retrieved from http://www.thecourt.ca/a-new-standard-for-mr-big-confessions-r-v-hart/ (accessed 07 May 2021).

[8] Absence seizures. (n.d.). Retrieved May 07, 2021, from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/epilepsy/absence-seizures#:~:text=An%20absence%20seizure%20causes%20you,by%20a%20period%20of%20hyperventilation

[9] R. v. Hart, 2007 NLTD 74 (CanLII), <https://canlii.ca/t/1r1tg>, retrieved on 2021-05-07

[10] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Nelson Hart: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved May 07, 2021, from https://murderpedia.org/male.H/h/hart-nelson.htm

Ep. 16 - The Phantom of Heilbronn & DNA Contamination

[1] AG Blogger (2020, October 13). Sources of DNA & RNA Contamination in the Lab. AG Scientific [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://agscientific.com/blog/2020/10/sources-of-dna-contamination-in-the-laboratory/


[2] Berlin, A.H. (2008). 'Woman Without A Face' leaves German police in the dark. The Sydney Morning Herald [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.smh.com.au/world/woman-without-a-face-leaves-german-police-in-the-dark-20081117-68dq.html


[3] Boyes, R. (2007). Junkie's needle may lead to woman serial killer. Independent News [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.independent.ie/world-news/europe/junkies-needle-may-lead-to-woman-serial-killer-26300637.html

[4] Cale, Cynthia M., et al. “Could Secondary DNA Transfer Falsely Place Someone at the Scene of a Crime?” Journal of Forensic Science Sciences, vol. 61, no. 1, 2016, pp. 196-203, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26331369/


[5] Diehl, J. (2008). Hunt for the phantom. Spiegel panorama [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.spiegel.de/panorama/justiz/heilbronner-polizistenmord-jagd-auf-das-phantom-a-544002.html

[6] Geddes, L. (2012, January 11). How DNA contamination can affect court cases. NewScientist [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328475-000-how-dna-contamination-can-affect-court-cases/


[7] Himmelreich, C. (2009). Germany's Phantom Serial Killer: A DNA Blunder. Time [Internet]. Retrieved from: http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1888126,00.html

[8] Okorocha, O. (2020). How DNA Contamination Can Alter Court Cases. Forensic Toxicology Expert Witness [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.okorieokorocha.com/how-dna-contamination-can-alter-court-cases/


[9] Puritan Authors. (2016, June 14). Identifying and Preventing DNA Evidence Contamination. Puritan Blog [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://blog.puritanmedproducts.com/identifying-and-preventing-dna-contamination#:~:text=DNA%20evidence%20is%20contaminated%20when,samples%20getting%20mixed%20during%20sequencing

[10] Schwark, T., et al. “Phantoms in the mortuary - DNA transfer during autopsies.” Forensic Science International, vol. 216, no. 1-3, 2012, pp. 121-126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.09.006


[11] Temko, N. (2008). Germany's hunt for the murderer known as 'the woman without a face’. The Guardian [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2008/nov/09/germany-serial-killer

Ep. 15 - Colonel Russel Williams & Tire Tread Analysis

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Russell Williams: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Russell Williams | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. https://murderpedia.org/male.W/w/williams-russell.htm.

[2] Blatchford, C., McArthur, G., Appleby, T., & Ladurantaye, S. (2010, February 9). Tire tracks led police to Williams. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/tire-tracks-led-police-to-williams/article4329767/.

[3] Bodziak, W. (2008). Tire Tread and Tire Track Evidence. Taylor & Francis Group.

[4] Butts, E. (2016). Russell Williams Case. Russell Williams Case | The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/russell-williams-case.

[5] Campbell, M., & Westoll, N. (2020, October 22). Family, friends of Jessica Lloyd mark decade since Russell Williams received life sentence. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/7411289/jessica-lloyd-russell-williams-sentenced-10-years/.

[6] CBC/Radio Canada. (2020, September 26). Col. Russell Williams timeline | CBC News. CBCnews. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/col-russell-williams-timeline-1.913312.

[7] Davidson, J. (2010, November 5). Tire sleuth helped nab notorious sex killer. Whitehorse Daily Star. https://www.whitehorsestar.com/News/tire-sleuth-helped-nab-notorious-sex-killer#:~:text=Tire%20sleuth%20helped%20nab%20notorious%20sex%20killer,-Sitting%20at%20an&text=He%20sidesteps%20further%20praise%20for,woman%20Jessica%20Lloyd%20in%20August.

[8] Lejtenyi, P. (2017). He Was a Top Officer in the Military, and Also a Serial Killer. VICE. https://www.vice.com/en/article/wj5ekm/he-was-a-top-officer-in-the-military-and-also-a-serial-killer.

[9] McArthur, G., & Appleby, T. (2010, October 19). Col. Williams's murder victims pleaded for their lives before death. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/col-williamss-murder-victims-pleaded-for-their-lives-before-death/article1215299/.

[10] National Academy of Sciences. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Sciences in the United States. The National Academies Press.

[11] SWGTREAD. (2013). Range of conclusions standard for footwear and tire impression examinations.

Ep. 14 - Andrei Chikatilo & Forensic Serology

[1] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Andrei Chikatilo: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from https://murderpedia.org/male.C/c/chikatilo.htm

[2] De Goede, O. (2019, May 29). Blood Types. Stanford University, The Tech Interactive [internet]. Retrieved from https://genetics.thetech.org/ask-a-geneticist/secretor-status-and-blood-type.

[3] Felman, A. (2020, June 03). Everything you need to know about blood types. Medical News Today [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/218285.

[4] Jenkins, J. Philip (2021, February 10). Andrei Chikatilo. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Andrei-Romanovich-Chikatilo

[5] Kelly, R.J., Rouquier, S., Giorgi, D., Lennon, G.G., & Lowe, J.B. (1995, March 03). Sequence and expression of a candidate for the human secretor blood group α(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270(9): 4640-4649. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.9.4640.

[6] n.a. (n.d.). Forensic Serology. New Jersey State Police [Internet]. Retrieved from https://www.njsp.org/division/investigations/forensic-serology.shtml.

[7] Sensabaugh, G. (2016). Serology: Overview. Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 2nd Ed.: 254-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800034-2.00337-2.

[8] The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.). ABO blood group system. Encyclopaedia Britannica [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/Dombrock-blood-group-system.

[9] Willmott, D., Boduszek, D., & Robinson, R. (2018). A psychodynamic-behaviourist investigation of Russian sexual serial killer Andrei Chikatilo. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 29(3), 498-507.

Ep. 13 - Vince Li & NCRMD

[1] CBC News. (2008, August 06). Timeline to the Greyhound bus killing. CBC News. Retrieved from

[2] Department of Justice. (2015, January 7). The Review Board Systems in Canada: An Overview of Results from the Mentally Disordered Accused Data Collection Study. Government of Canada. Retrieved from: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/csj-sjc/jsp-sjp/rr06_1/p1.html

[3] Lively, C. (2021, February 23). Fitness to stand trial [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, FRSC3338: Introduction to Forensic Psychology.

[4] Manitoba Review Board. (2010, May 31). A Disposition Review hearing of Vince Weiguang Li. Province of Manitoba Canada.

[5]n.a. (n.d.). Vince Weiguang Li. Murderpedia.org. Retrieved from https://murderpedia.org/male.L/l/li-vince-weiguang.htm.

https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/timeline-to-the-greyhound-bus-killing-1.757680.

[6] Stafford, B. “Timothy McLean Killing (Carol De Delley Interview). Aftermath of Murder: Survivor Stories. Retrieved from: https://www.aftermathofmurder.ca/timothy-mclean-killing-carol-.

[7] Ternes, M. (2020, January 30). Competency [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, FRSC3338: Introduction to Forensic Psychology.

[8] The Canadian Press, Staff. (2015, February 27). Timeline of decisions in the case of Vince Li. Global News. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/1855998/timeline-of-decisions-in-the-case-of-vince-li/.

[9] Winnipeg Free Press. (2012, May 22). Greyhound bus beheader Vince Li: ‘I don't hear voices’. National Post. Retrieved from https://nationalpost.com/news/greyhound-bus-beheader-vince-li-i-dont-hear-voices.

Ep. 12 - Jeremy Steinke, Jasmine Richardson & YCJA

[1] (n.a.) Jasmine Rhichardon walks free a decade after she and boyfriend massacred her family [Internet]. New Zealand (AK): 20 Aug, 2016 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/jasmine-richardson-walks-free-a-decade-after-she-and-boyfriend-massacred-her-family/TDLBX4NMVXCY5UGVSRISBITUTE/


[2] All That’s Interesting. Jasmine Richardson Killed Her Family With Her “Werewolf” Boyfriend - Now She’s Walking Free [Internet]. n.p.: 21 May, 2018 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from: https://allthatsinteresting.com/jasmine-richardson


[3] CBC News. Medicine Hat girl guilty of first-degree murder [Internet]. n.p.: 09 Jul, 2007 [cited 06 February 2021], Available from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/medicine-hat-girl-guilty-of-first-degree-murder-1.640437


[4] Government of Canada, D. (2015, March 05). Overview of the youth criminal justice act. Retrieved February 07, 2021, from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/cj-jp/yj-jj/tools-outils/sheets-feuillets/oycja-alssj.html


[5] Government of Canada, D. (2017, August 08). The youth criminal Justice ACT summary and background. Retrieved February 07, 2021, from https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/cj-jp/yj-jj/tools-outils/back-hist.html


[6] Monacelli, A. Jasmine Richardson, Jeremy Steinke, and the Richardson Family Murders [Internet]. n.p: 06 Nov, 2020 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from: https://soapboxie.com/government/Murderous-Children-Jasmine-Richardson#gid=ci0273868ef00027eb&pid=murderous-children-jasmine-richardson-MTc1MTI4MTM1NDU1NjE0Nzg4


[7] Murderpedia Editors. Jeremy Allan STEINKE [Internet]. n.p., n.d. [Cited 06 February 2021]. Available from: https://murderpedia.org/male.S/s/steinke-jeremy.htm


[8] Prison Kids Documentary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DLpNhTbMCZw

[9] The Star. Girl on trial for murder agreed to marry lover [Internet]. Toronto, ON: 30 June, 2007 [cited 06 February 2021]. Available from: https://www.thestar.com/news/2007/06/30/girl_on_trial_for_murder_agreed_to_marry_lover.html


Ep. 11 - Robert Pickton & Geographic Profiling

[1] https://www.txstate.edu/gii/geographic-profiling/overview.html


[2] Cameron, S. On the Farm: Robert William Pickton and Vancouver’s missing women. Canada: Vintage Canada; 2011.


[3] English, W. Geoprofile: Developing And Establishing The Reliability Of A New Geographic Profiling Software System [thesis]. Chicago (IL): Chicago School of Professional Psychology; 2008


[4] Interview of Robert Pickton [Internet]. SCRIBD. 2010 [cited 2019 Oct 19]; Available from:https://www.scribd.com/document/35477040/Police-interview-of-Robert-PICKTON


[5] Introduction to Geographic Profiling for Crime Analysts . Presentation at Environmental Criminology Research Inc; 2012; Vancouver B.C. http://geographicprofiling.com/GPAtraining/Geographic%20Profiling%20for%20Crime%20Analysts.pdf


[6] Grierson, B. The Hound of the Data Points. Popular Science. 2003 http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/popsci1.pdf


[7] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 341 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/2c70s>, retrieved on 2019-11-01


[8] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1212 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/2c729>, retrieved on 2019-11-01


[9] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1447 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/2c703>, retrieved on 2019-11-01


[10] R. v. Pickton, 2006 BCSC 1448 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/2c7wm>, retrieved on 2019-11-01


[11] R. v. Pickton, 2007 BCSC 410 (CanLII), <http://canlii.ca/t/2cgfr>, retrieved on 2019-11-02


[12] Rossmo, D.K., Geographic profiling: Target patterns of serial murderers [dissertation]. Burnaby (BC): Simon Fraser University; 1995.


[13] Rossmo, K. Recent developments in Geographic Profiling. Policing. 2012; 6 (2): 144-150 doi: 10.1093/police/par055


[14] Transcript of Robert Pickton Cell Video [Internet]. SCRIBD. 2010 [cited 2019 Oct 19]; Available from: https://www.scribd.com/document/35487013/Transcript-of-Robert-Pickton-Cell-Video


[15] Cell Plant Video: https://youtu.be/y3gPa-wx43c


[16] Book Link: https://www.amazon.ca/Farm-William-Pickton-Vancouvers-Missing/dp/0676975852/ref=sr_1_1?crid=1P6CBSYT6Y6IG&dchild=1&keywords=on+the+farm+stevie+cameron&qid=1611785718&sprefix=on+the+farm+%2Caps%2C320&sr=8-1

Ep. 10 - Guy Paul Morin & Wrongful Convictions

[1] Campbell, K. & Denov, M. (2003, 2004, 2005). Miscarriages of Justice: The Impact of Wrongful Imprisonment. Department of Justice Canada. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jr13/p5a.html#ftn2


[2] Creet, J. (October 15, 2020). Christine Jessop’s killer identified: Solved cold case raises questions about genetic privacy. The Conversation. Available at: (https://theconversation.com/christine-jessops-killer-identified-solved-cold-case-raises-questions-about-genetic-privacy-148266


[3] Dwyer, J., Neufeld, P., & Scheck, B. (2001). Actual innocence: When justice goes wrong and how to make it right.


[4] Goodfield, K. (October 16, 2020). Christine Jessop’s killer helped in search, attended funeral and wake, family says. CTV News. Available at: https://toronto.ctvnews.ca/christine-jessop-s-killer-helped-in-search-attended-funeral-and-wake-family-says-1.5148357


[5] Harland-Logan, S. (n.d.). Guy Paul Morin. Innocence Canada. https://www.innocencecanada.com/exonerations/guy-paul-morin/#ftn1


[6] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) About. Innocence Project. Available at: https://innocenceproject.org/about/


[7] Innocence Project Editors. (n.d.). Causes of Wrongful Convictions. Innocence Project. Available at: https://www.innocencecanada.com/causes-of-wrongful-convictions/


[8] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) DNA Exoneration in the United States. Innocence Project. Available at: https://innocenceproject.org/dna-exonerations-in-the-united-states/


[9] Innocence Project Editors (n.d.) Exonerate the Innocent. Innocence Project. Available at: https://innocenceproject.org/exonerate/


[10] Makin, K. (October, 2020). Guy Paul Morin Case. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Available at: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/guy-paul-morin-case


[11] Ministry of the Attorney General (March, 1998). Report of the Kaufman Commission on Proceedings Involving Guy Paul Morin: Executive Summary. Government of Ontario. https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/about/pubs/morin/morin_esumm.html


[12] Patriquin, Michelle. (2020, September 28). “The Admission of Forensic Science Evidence”, Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary’s University


** Guy Paul Morin's Succession of Images CD album

Ep. 09 - Norfolk Four & False Confessions

[1] Bikel, O (Writer & Director). (2010, November 09). The Confessions [Ep. 16]. In O. Bikel (Producer), Frontline. PBS.

[2] n.a.(n.d.). Norfolk Four (Derek Tice Danial Williams, Joseph Dick, Eric Wilson). Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project. https://exonerate.org/all-project-list/norfolk-four-derek-tice-danial-williams-joseph-dick-and-eric-wilson/

[3] Suderman, A. & Richer, A.D. (2018, December 03). Settlement reached in infamous ‘Norfolk 4’ case. Navy Times. https://www.navytimes.com/news/your-navy/2018/12/04/settlement-reached-in-infamous-norfolk-4-case/

[4] Jackman, T. (2017. March 21). ‘Norfolk 4,’ wrongly convicted of rape and murder, pardoned by Gov. McAuliffe. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/true-crime/wp/2017/03/21/norfolk-4-wrongly-convicted-of-rape-and-murder-pardoned-by-gov-mcauliffe/

[5] n.a. (n.d.). Derek Tice. The National Registry of Exonerations. http://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/pages/casedetail.aspx?caseid=3820

[6] n.a. (n.d.). Joseph Dick, Jr.. The National Registry of Exonerations. http://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/pages/casedetail.aspx?caseid=5055

[7]n.a. (n.d.). Danial Williams. The National Registry of Exonerations. http://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/pages/casedetail.aspx?caseid=5054

[8]n.a. (n.d.). Eric Wilson. The National Registry of Exonerations. http://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/pages/casedetail.aspx?caseid=5110

[9] Leo, R.A. (2009, September). False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 37(3): 332-343. http://jaapl.org/content/37/3/332.

[10] Stinson, Veronica. (2018). “Police Investigations” Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary's University.

[11] Patry, Marc. (2020, October 20). “Police Interrogations” Lecture, Halifax (NS): Saint Mary's University.

Ep. 08 - Ivan Milat & Eyewitness Identification

[1] Blanco, J. (n.d.). Ivan Milat: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from https://murderpedia.org/male.M/m/milat-ivan.htm

[2] Innocence Staff. (2020, April 15). How Eyewitness Misidentification Can Send Innocent People to Prison. The Innocence project. https://innocenceproject.org/how-eyewitness-misidentification-can-send-innocent-people-to-prison/.

[3] Knowles, M. (Director). (2019, December 3). The Backpacker Killer of Australia | Was Ivan Milat Born to Kill? | [Video file]. Retrieved December 8, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUpr2Lb3G7k

[4] Nunn, G. (2019, October 26). Ivan Milat: Australia's 'backpacker killer' and unanswered questions. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-48346543

[5] Patry, M., Stinson, V., & Smith, S.M. (2009). Supreme Court of Canada Addresses Admissibility of Posthypnosis Witness Evidence: R. v. Trochym (2007). Canadian Psychology, 50(2), 98-105. DOI: 10.1037/a0013767.

[6] Stinson, V. (2018). Lecture: Eyewitness memory in the legal system: Improving witness identification and interviewing procedures. Saint Mary’s University, Psychology and Law.

[7] Smalarz, L., & Wells, G.L. (2015) Contamination of Eyewitness Self-Reports and the Mistaken-Identification Problem. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), 120-124. DOI: 10.1177/0963721414554394.

[8] Wixted, J.T., Mickes, L., & Fisher, R.P. (2018). Rethinking the Reliability of Eyewitness Memory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(3), 325-335. DOI: 10.1177/1745691617734878.

Ep. 07 - Tiago Henrique Gomes da Rocha & Ballistics

[1] (n.a.)(2018, September 20). See the convictions of the vigilante appointed as serial killer, in Goiás. Goias. http://g1.globo.com/goias/noticia/2016/05/veja-condenacoes-do-vigilante-apontado-como-serial-killer-em-goias.html.

[2] Eleftheriou-Smith, L. (2014, October 17). Brazilian serial killer suspect Thiago Henrique Gomes da Rocha, 26, 'confesses to 39 murders'. Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/brazilian-serial-killer-suspect-thiago-henrique-gomes-da-rocha-26-confesses-39-murders-9800574.html.

[3] (n.a.)(n.d.). Tiago Henrique GOMES DA ROCHA. Murderpedia.com. https://murderpedia.org/male.G/g/gomes-da-rocha-tiago.htm.

[4] McCoy, T. (2014, October 17). The mystery of a Brazilian called ‘one of the world’s most prolific serial killers’. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/10/17/the-mystery-of-a-brazilian-called-one-of-the-worlds-most-prolific-serial-killers/.

[5] Frasier, B. (2019, October 27). Introduction (Lecture).

[6] (n.a.). (n.d.). The History of Forensic Ballistics - Ballistic Fingerprinting. Incognito Forensic Foundation. https://ifflab.org/the-history-of-forensic-ballistics-ballistic-fingerprinting/.

[7] (n.a.). (n.d.). Ballistics. National Institute of Standards and Technology. https://www.nist.gov/ballistics.

[8] (n.a.). (2018, September 19). NIST Updates Forensic Standard Reference Materials. National Institute of Standards and Technology. https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2018/09/nist-updates-forensic-standard-reference-materials.

[9] (n.a.). (n.d.). Standard Bullets and Cartridge Cases. National Institute of Standards and Technology. https://www.nist.gov/pml/sensor-science/surface-and-nanostructure-metrology/standard-bullets-and-cartridge-cases.

[10] (n.a.). (2018, February 08). How Good a Match is It? Putting Statistics into Forensic Firearms Identification. National Institute of Standards and Technology. https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2018/02/how-good-match-it-putting-statistics-forensic-firearms-identification.

[11] (n.a.). (n.d.). Guide to forensic investigations: Trace evidence, ballistics, toxicology, and DNA. Forensic Colleges. https://www.forensicscolleges.com/blog/resources/forensic-evidence-guide.

[12] (n.a.). (n.d.). Gun timeline. History detectives: special investigations - PBS. https://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/gun-timeline/.

[13] (n.a.). (n.d.). History of Ballistics. Minneapolis Public Schools. https://onlineelectives.mpls.k12.mn.us/ballistics.

Ep. 06 - Stephen Akinmurele & Fingerprinting

[1] Ashbaugh, D.R. (1992). Incipient ridges and the clarity spectrum. Journal of Forensic Identification, 42(2), 106-114.

[2] Fadl, S. The Cul-de-sac killer and his hatred of the elderly. n.p. 3 May 2020. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from: https://killertales.com/2020/05/03/the-cul-de-sac-killer-and-his-hatred-of-the-elderly/

[3] Lewis, J. New finger-print technology to be used at Dorset crime scenes. Buckinghamshire, UK. 26 October 2020. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from: https://www.bournemouthecho.co.uk/news/18821600.new-finger-print-technology-used-dorset-crime-scenes/

[4] Murderpedia Editors. Stephen Akinmurele [Internet]. N.p. n.d. [Cited 10 November 2020]. Available from: https://murderpedia.org/male.A/a/akinmurele.htm

[5] N/A. Stephen Akinmurele. (2020, July 21). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from https://blackpoolcrime.wordpress.com/2016/03/02/stephen-akinmurele/

[6] N/A. Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Technologies: The Bertillon system. (2014, June 05). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/visibleproofs/galleries/technologies/bertillon.html

[7] N/A. Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Biographies: Juan Vucetich (1858–1925). (2014, June 05). Retrieved November 12, 2020, from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/vucetich.html

[8]Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 5-6.

Ep. 05 - Unsolved Stories

[1] Abbott, K. “The Children Who Went Up In Smoke,” December 25, 2012. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-children-who-went-up-in-smoke-172429802/utm_source=facebook.com.

[2] Truesdell, J. 5 Things to Know about the Keddie Cabin Murders - and the New Hunt for the Killers [Internet]. n.p., 2016 [cited 26 October 2020]. Available from: https://people.com/crime/keddie-cabin-28-murders-5-things-know/

[3] All That’s Interesting. Inside The Keddie Murders: The Confounding Quadruple Homicide At Cabin 28 [Internet]. n.p., 2019 [cited 26 October 2020]. Available from: https://allthatsinteresting.com/keddie-murders

[4] Jensen & Holes. The Keddie Cabin Murders [Internet]. n.p., The MurderSquad.com; 2020 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: http://themurdersquad.com/episodes/the-keddie-cabin-murders/

[5] Ashley, M. Investigators Allude to a Break in the Keddie Cabin Murders [Internet]. n.p., 2020 [ cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: https://medium.com/the-true-crime-edition/investigators-elude-to-a-break-in-the-keddie-cabin-murders-c7052435d889

[6] Rojas, R. What Happened to Etan Patz? Unraveling a Nearly 40-Year-Old Case [Internet]. New York (NY): New York Times; n.d. [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/30/nyregion/what-happened-to-etan-patz.html?auth=login-google.

[7] Remling, A. Etan Patz Timeline: What To Know About the 33-Year-Old Reopened Missing Child Investigation [Internet]. n.p.: International Business Times; 2012 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.ibtimes.com/etan-patz-timeline-what-know-about-33-year-old-reopened-missing-child-investigation-439818.

[8] History.com Editors. 6-year-old Etan Patz—boy on milk carton—goes missing [Internet]. N.p.: History.com; 2020 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/etan-patz-milk-carton-kids-goes-missing.

[9] Berman, T., & Sher, L. Etan Patz Case Reopened 31 Years Later [internet]. New york (NY): ABC News; 2010 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: https://abcnews.go.com/2020/etan-patz-missing-boy-case-reopened-31-years/story?id=10749565.

[10] Sapien, J., & Trudo, H. Missing: A Boy and The Evidence Against His Accused Killer. [Internet]. N.p.: ProPublica; 2013 [cited 27 October 2020]. Available from: https://www.propublica.org/article/missing-a-boy-and-the-evidence-against-his-accused-killer#:~:text=Hernandez%2C%20according%20to%20court%20papers,for%20more%20than%20a%20decade.

[11] McKinley, J.C. Jr. Jurors in Patz Case View Suspect’s First Confession [Internet]. New York (NY): New York Times; 2012 [Cited 27 october 2020]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/nyregion/as-jury-views-suspects-confession-more-questions-arise-in-patz-murder-case.html#:~:text=The%20defendant%2C%20Pedro%20Hernandez%2C%20is,right%20in%20the%20dark%20coat.&text=The%20tearful%20confession%20came%20after,had%20left%20key%20questions%20unanswered.

Ep. 04 - Toolbox Killers

[1] 48 Cal.3d 1046 (1989) 774 P.2d 659259 Cal. Rptr. 630 THE PEOPLE, Plaintiff and Respondent,v.LAWRENCE SIGMOND BITTAKER, Defendant and Appellant. Docket No. S004359. Crim. No. 21942. Supreme Court of California. June 22, 1989.

[2] Douglas JE., Burgess AW., Burgess AG., Ressler RK. Classification Manuel: A standard system for investigating crimes and classifying violent crimes. 2nd ed. San Francisco (CS): Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint; 2006.

[3] Furio J. Team killers: A Comparative Study of Comparative Criminals. New York (NY): Algora Publishing; 2001.

[4] Markman D., Bosco D. Alone with the Devil: Famous cases of a courtroom psychiatrist. New York (NY): Doubleday; 1985.

[5] Murderpedia Editors. Lawrence Sigmund Bittaker [Internet]. N.p. n.d. [Cited 29 September 2020]. Available from: https://murderpedia.org/male.B/b/bittaker-lawrence.htm

[6] Rasmussen E. South Bay serial killer Lawrence Bittaker dies at 79 of natural causes while on death row [Internet]. Long Beach(CA): 2019. Available from: https://www.dailybreeze.com/2019/12/16/south-bay-serial-killer-lawrence-bittaker-dies-at-79-of-natural-causes-while-on-death-row/.

[7] Rasmussen E. Tool Box Killers: Roy Norris, who along with Lawrence Bittaker killed 5 teens, dies in Bay Area prison [Internet]. Long Beach(CA): 2020 [Cited 29 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.eastbaytimes.com/2020/02/26/roy-norris-who-along-with-lawrence-bittaker-killed-5-in-l-a-county-dies/#:~:text=Norris%20pleaded%20guilty%20to%20four,and%20one%20count%20of%20robbery.

[8]Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 39-42

[9] Shar001. Transcript of Shirly Lynette Ledford audio recording and Bittaker’s 1989 appeal paper [Internet]. N.p., n.d. [cited 29 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.tapatalk.com/groups/watchingrobertpickton88015/transcript-of-shirley-lynette-ledford-audio-record-t3312.html

[10] Steade S. Second of the Tool Box Killers dies in California prison [Internet]. N.p.,: 2020 [cited 29 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.mercurynews.com/2020/02/25/second-tool-box-killer-dies-in-prison/

[11] The Associated Press. California killer Lawrence Bittaker, one of the 'Tool Box Killers,' dies at 79 [Internet]. San Quentin(CA): 2019 [Cited 29 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/california-killer-lawrence-bittaker-one-tool-box-killers-dies-79-n1102791

[12] Winerman, L. (2004, July). Psychological sleuths--Criminal profiling: The reality behind the myth. Monitor on Psychology, 35(7). Available from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/criminal.

Ep. 03 - Paul Bernardo & DNA

[1] Butler JM. Advanced topics in forensic DNA typing: methodology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2012.

[2] Cheriyedath S. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Technique [Internet]. News. 2019 [cited 2020 Sep 16]; Available from: https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Restriction-Fragment-Length-Polymorphism-(RFLP)-Technique.aspx

[3] Cimino A. Women Who Kill: A chilling casebook of true-life murders. London (UK): Arcturus Publishing Ltd; 2019. Chapter 3, Karla Homolka; 33-41.

[4] DNA Casework [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 Sep 16];Available from: https://www.fbi.gov/services/laboratory/biometric-analysis/dna-casework

[5] DNA Evidence: Basics of Analyzing [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 16]; Available from: https://nij.ojp.gov/topics/articles/dna-evidence-basics-analyzing

[6] Gel electrophoresis (article) [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 17];Available from: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-biology/gene-expression-and-regulation/biotechnology/a/gel-electrophoresis

[7] Goswami M, Lankenau A, Laughter A, Lineberry S, Lyons S. Paul Bernardo [Internet]. Radford(VA): n.d. [Cited 15 September 2020]. Available from: http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Psyc%20405/serial%20killers/Bernardo,%20Paul.pd

[8] Justice Archie Campbell. Bernardo Investigation Review [internet]. Toronto, ON: 1996 [cited 16 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/inquiries/cornwall/en/hearings/exhibits/Wendy_Leaver/pdf/10_Campbell_Summary.pdf

[9] Murderpedia Editors. Paul Kenneth BERNARDO [Internet]. n.p. n.d. [Cited 15 September 2020]. Available from: https://murderpedia.org/male.B/b/bernardo-paul.htm

[10] Panneerchelvam S, Norazmi MN. Forensic DNA profiling and database. Malays J Med Sci. 2003;10(2):20-26.

[11] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 21-23.

[12] Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) [Internet]. National Center for Biotechnology Information. [cited 2020 Sep 16];Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/probe/docs/techrflp/

[13] The Canadian Press. Timeline of events in the case of convicted rapist and killer Paul Bernardo [Internet]. Toronto (ON): 2017 [Cited 15 September 2020]. Available from: https://toronto.citynews.ca/2018/10/17/timeline-of-events-in-the-case-of-convicted-rapist-and-killer-paul-bernardo/

Ep. 02 - Forensic Genealogy & the GSK

[1] BEE STAFF AND WIRE REPORTS. These are the crimes DeAngelo pleaded guilty to in Golden State Killer case [Internet]. Sacramento (CA): 2020 [cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.sacbee.com/news/local/crime/article243866887.html

[2] Biography.com Editors. Golden State Killer Biography [Internet]. (n.p.): 2020 [cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/golden-state-killer

[3] Dale L. Without a warrant: Police use popular family tree genealogy sites to solve murder cases | Laurelly Dale [Internet]. Toronto (ON): 2019 [Cited 08 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.thelawyersdaily.ca/articles/15484/without-a-warrant-police-use-popular-family-tree-genealogy-sites-to-solve-murder-cases-laurelly-dale

[4] Gafni M. Here’s the ‘open-source’ genealogy DNA website that helped crack the Golden State Killer case [Internet]. Walnut Creek (CA): 2018 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.eastbaytimes.com/2018/04/26/ancestry-23andme-deny-assisting-law-enforcement-in-east-area-rapist-case/

[5] Guerrini CJ, Robinson JO, Petersen D, McGuire AL. Should police have access to genetic genealogy databases? Capturing the Golden State Killer and other criminals using a controversial new forensic technique. PLOS Biol. 2018; 16(10): e2006906. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2006906.

[6] Margaritoff, M. Meet Joseph DeAngelo, The Elusive Golden State Killer [Internet]. (n.p): 2020 [cited 08 September 2020]. Available from: https://allthatsinteresting.com/joseph-james-deangelo#:~:text=Joseph%20James%20DeAngelo%20was%20born,War%20for%20about%2022%20months.

[7] O'Doherty M. Genetic Genealogy and Police Investigations [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): 2019 [Cited 08 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.bsbcriminallaw.com/blog/2019/06/genetic-genealogy-and-police-investigations.shtml

[8] Phillips C. The Golden State Killer investigation and the nascent field of forensic T genealogy. Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 2018; 36: 186-188. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2018.07.010.

[9] Pine LG. Genealogy [Internet]. (n.p.): 2019 [cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/genealogy

[10] Ravani, S., Gutierrez, M., Lyons, J., Haigney, S. DNA match catches alleged ‘East Area Rapist,’ who murdered 12, raped 45 [Internet]. (n.p): 2018 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Report-East-Area-Rapist-who-murdered-12-12863488.php

[11] Shapiro, E. The ‘Golden State Killer’: Inside the timeline of crimes [Internet]. (n.p): 2020 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://abcnews.go.com/US/inside-timeline-crimes-golden-state-killer/story?id=54744307#:~:text=The%20notorious%20%22Golden%20State%20Killer,counts%20of%20first%2Ddegree%20murder.

[12] THEDNAGEEK. Timeline of Investigative Genetic Genealogy [Internet]. (n.p.): 2019 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://thednageek.com/timeline-of-investigative-genetic-genealogy/

[13] Verogen, Inc.. Using SNPs and STRs for Human Identification [Internet]. (n.p.): 2020 [Cited 08 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.news-medical.net/whitepaper/20200211/Using-SNPs-and-STRs-for-Human-Identification.aspx

[14] Wickenheiser RA. Forensic genealogy, bioethics and the Golden State Killer case. Forensic Sci. Int. Synergy. 2019; 1: 114-125. doi: 10.1016/j.fsisyn.2019.07.003.

[15] Zhang S. How a Tiny Website Became the Police's Go-To Genealogy Database [Internet]. Washington (DC): 2018 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/06/gedmatch-police-genealogy-database/561695/

[16] Zhang S. The Messy Consequences of the Golden State Killer Case [Internet]. Washington (DC): 2019 [Cited 07 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/10/genetic-genealogy-dna-database-criminal-investigations/599005/

Ep. 01 - Introduction

[1] Martin DC, Dabbs GR, Roberts LG. Lemonade from Lemons: The taphonomic effect of lawn mowers on skeletal remains. J Forensic Sci. 2013; 58(5): 1273-1278

[2] Shelton DE. THe 'CSI Effect': Does It Really Exist? [Internet]. Washington (DC): 2008 [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from: https://nij.ojp.gov/topics/articles/csi-effect-does-it-really-exist

[3] Brown DL. Tulsa plans to dig for suspected mass graves from a 1921 race massacre [Internet]. (US):2020 [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2020/02/03/tulsa-mass-graves-excavation/

[4] 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre [Internet]. (US):(n.d.) [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/

[5] 1921 Graves Test Excavation at Oaklawn Cemetery Complete [Internet]. Tulsa (OK): 2020 [Cited 02 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.cityoftulsa.org/press-room/1921-graves-test-excavation-at-oaklawn-cemetery-complete/