Sources

Ep. 74 - Highway to Hell: Aileen Wuornos

[1] N.a. (n.d.). Aileen Carol Wuornos. Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney. http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/death/US/wuornos805.htm.

[2] (n.a.) (n.d.). The Case of Aileen Wuornos. Capital Punishment in Context. https://capitalpunishmentincontext.org/cases/wuornos

[3] Berry-Dee, C. (2019). Aileen “Lee” Carol Wuornos, In: Female Serial Killers: Up Close and Personal. Ulysses Press. ISBN: 978-1-61243-897-9.

[4] Biography.Com Editors, & Kettler S. (2023, December 09). Aileen Wuornos. Biography.com https://www.biography.com/crime/aileen-wuornos

[5] Jenkins, J.P. (2024, April 25). Aileen Wuornos: American Serial Killer. Brittanica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aileen-Wuornos

[6] Shlosberg, A. & Sacks, M. (2024, May 21). Aileen Wuornos (no. 180) [Audio Podcast episode]. Women & Crime. https://womenandcrimepodcast.com/aileen-wuornos/.

[7] Real Stories Editors. (2021, December 12). Aileen Wuornos: The Story of a Serial Killer | Real Stories True Crime Documentary [video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ExGZtlzL1x4&ab_channel=RealStories

[8] Real Crime Editors. (2023, January 23). Life And Death Of A Serial Killer: Nick Broomfield's Chilling Doc On Aileen Wuornos | Real Crime [Youtube]. Real Crime. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaGCNbIGomM&ab_channel=RealCrime.

[9]  Hayden, A.V. (2018, March 19).  8 Of The Most Shocking Moments From The Aileen Wuornos Murder Trial. Oxygen True Crime. https://www.oxygen.com/snapped/crime-time/shocking-moments-aileen-wuornos-murder-trial

Ep. 73 - Drowned in Deception: George Joseph Smith

[1] Cavendish, R. (2015, July). Serial killer Smith convicted: A notorious mass murderer was sentenced to death on July 1st 1915. History Today. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.historytoday.com/archive/serial-killer-smith-convicted 

[2] Jacobson, S. (2022, September 26). Crime of the Century: The Brides in the Bath. HeinOnline Blog. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://home.heinonline.org/blog/2022/09/crime-of-the-century-the-brides-in-the-bath/

[3] N.a. (n.d.). The Brides in the Bath case: George Joseph Smith. Watford Observer. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.watfordobserver.co.uk/news/nostalgia/crimelibrary/georgejosephsmith/bridesinthebath/ 

[4] Real Crime. “The Bigamist With a Taste For Blood | Murder Maps | Real Crime.” YouTube, 15 July 2021, https://youtu.be/88Azk-OiCjs?si=u-TdO0h4bXyPOi5f 

[5] Tremain, D., & Tremain, P. (2021). Death by Drowning. In How to Solve a Murder: true stories from a life in forensic medicine (pp. 129–153). essay, HarperElement. 

[6] Watson, E. R. (1922). Trial of George Joseph Smith. Internet Archive. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.126771/page/n11/mode/2up 

Ep. 72 - Drowned in Deception: George Joseph Smith

[1] Cavendish, R. (2015, July). Serial killer Smith convicted: A notorious mass murderer was sentenced to death on July 1st 1915. History Today. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.historytoday.com/archive/serial-killer-smith-convicted 

[2] Jacobson, S. (2022, September 26). Crime of the Century: The Brides in the Bath. HeinOnline Blog. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://home.heinonline.org/blog/2022/09/crime-of-the-century-the-brides-in-the-bath/

[3] N.a. (n.d.). The Brides in the Bath case: George Joseph Smith. Watford Observer. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.watfordobserver.co.uk/news/nostalgia/crimelibrary/georgejosephsmith/bridesinthebath/ 

[4] Real Crime. “The Bigamist With a Taste For Blood | Murder Maps | Real Crime.” YouTube, 15 July 2021, https://youtu.be/88Azk-OiCjs?si=u-TdO0h4bXyPOi5f 

[5] Tremain, D., & Tremain, P. (2021). Death by Drowning. In How to Solve a Murder: true stories from a life in forensic medicine (pp. 129–153). essay, HarperElement. 

[6] Watson, E. R. (1922). Trial of George Joseph Smith. Internet Archive. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.126771/page/n11/mode/2up 

Ep. 71 - Prescription for Evil: The Harold Shipman Case

[1] Jenkins, John Philip. "Harold Shipman". Encyclopedia Britannica, 26 Apr. 2024, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harold-Shipman. Accessed 7 May 2024.

[2] Jackson, T., & Smith, R. (2004, January 24). Harold Shipman. BMJ : British Medical Journal. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC318504/ 

Ep. 70 - Legs & Regs: The World of Wildlife Forensics

[1] 2,114 seizures of endangered animals and timber in major international law enforcement operation. INTERPOL. (n.d.-a). https://www.interpol.int/en/News-and-Events/News/2023/2-114-seizures-of-endangered-animals-and-timber-in-major-international-law-enforcement-operation 

[2] Appendices | cites. CITES. (n.d.). https://cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php 

[3] Breen, K. (2023, December 12). Hundreds of eggs, 53 primates, 660 pounds of ivory among items seized in global wildlife trafficking operation. CBS News. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/eggs-primates-ivory-seized-wildlife-trafficking/ 

[4] CITES. Species Survival Network. (2019, March 26). https://ssn.org/cites/#:~:text=Examples%20of%20species%20on%20CITES,Asian%20tropical%20lady’s%20slipper%20orchid

[5] Devlin, H. (2024, March 3). Forensic spray using jellyfish protein could speed up fingerprint detections. The Guardian. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2024/mar/03/forensic-spray-using-jellyfish-protein-could-speed-up-fingerprint-detection  

[6] Environment, U. (n.d.). The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). UNEP. https://www.unep.org/explore-topics/oceans-seas/what-we-do/working-regional-seas/partners/international-union#:~:text=IUCN%20is%20the%20global%20authority,management%2C%20and%20education%20and%20communication. 

[7] Hauling out: International trade and management of walrus - wildlife trade report from traffic. TRAFFIC. (n.d.). https://www.traffic.org/publications/reports/hauling-out-international-trade-and-management-of-walrus/ 

[8] Illegal wildlife trade has become one of the “world’s largest criminal activities.” INTERPOL. (n.d.-b). https://www.interpol.int/en/News-and-Events/News/2023/Illegal-wildlife-trade-has-become-one-of-the-world-s-largest-criminal-activities 

[9] Introduction. (n.d.-a). https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/wildlife/2020/WWLC20_Chapter_1_Introduction.pdf 

[10] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (n.d.). https://www.iucnredlist.org/#:~:text=What%20is%20The%20IUCN%20Red,animal%2C%20fungi%20and%20plant%20species 

[11] Ruan, N., Qiu, Q., Wei, X., Liu, J., Wu, L., Jia, N., ... & James, T. D. (2024). De Novo Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore-Based Probes for Capturing Latent Fingerprints Using a Portable System. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 146(3), 2072-2079.

[12] Smithsonian Institution. (2023, October 4). A look inside wildlife crime scene investigators. Smithsonian.com. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/wildlife-crime-scene-investigator-dna-trafficking-180982969/ 

[13] Wildlife crime: Terms and definitions. IFAW. (n.d.). https://www.ifaw.org/journal/wildlife-crime-terms-definitions 

[14] Wildlife forensic science. (n.d.-b). https://www.unodc.org/documents/Wildlife/Wildlife_Forensics_Brochure.pdf 

Ep. 69 - Dumb Criminals

[1] Allan, L. (2021, September 23). The stupidest, most unbelievable alibis killers have ever tried to pull off. Ranker. https://www.ranker.com/list/dumb-killer-alibis/laura-allan 

[2] Bella, T. (2023, September 11). He allegedly killed a man. Then he made a song about it, police say. The Washington Post. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2023/09/11/las-vegas-rapper-murder-song/ 

[3] Chasmar, J. (2013, July 28). Man armed with baseball bat tried to rob gun store. Washington Times. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/jul/28/man-armed-baseball-bat-tries-rob-gun-store/ 

[4] Collman, A. (2013, July 28). Not so fast! Man attempts to rob a gun store with baseball bat - gets arrested instead when manager pulls out loaded weapon. Daily Mail. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2380519/Not-fast-Man-attempts-rob-gun-store-baseball-bat--gets-arrested-instead-manager-pulls-loaded-weapon.html 

[5] CNN Staff. (2013, July 26). Man armed with bat and knife attempts to rob a gun store - he fails. CNN. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2013/07/26/us/gun-robber-armed-with-bat/index.html 

[6] Havervold, K. (n.d.). 10 of The Stupidest Criminals of All Time. howstuffworks. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://people.howstuffworks.com/10-of-the-stupidest-criminals-of-all-time.htm 

[7] Henderson, J. & Nichols, T. (2023, September 8). Rapper arrested on a murder charge after allegedly writing a song and making a music video about the crime. CNN. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2023/09/08/us/kenjuan-mcdaniel-nevada-rapper-arrested-murder/index.html 

[8] Hough, A. (2009, October 30). 'Dumb' American criminals attempted robbery with 'permanent market pen disguises'. The Telegraph. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/6431303/Dumb-American-criminals-attempt-robbery-with-permanent-marker-pen-disguises.html 

[9] Kalmbacher, C. (3034, October 4). ‘His flame burned differently’: Brothers take pleas in stabbing death of aspiring lawyer who wanted to help people in need. Law&Crime. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://lawandcrime.com/crime/his-flame-burned-differently-brothers-take-pleas-in-stabbing-death-of-aspiring-lawyer-who-wanted-to-help-people-in-need/ 

[10] McGlothlen, J. (2009, November 5). Charges dismissed against 2 Iowa men who painted faces with markers. The Gazette. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.thegazette.com/news/charges-dismissed-against-2-iowa-men-who-painted-faces-with-marker/ 

[11] n.a. (2021, June 18). New Jersey Brothers Charged in Richland Township Homicide. Bucks County District Attorney’s Office. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://bucks.crimewatchpa.com/da/29567/post/new-jersey-brothers-charged-richland-township-homicide 

[12] n.a. (2023, November 13). New Jersey Man Sentenced To 25-55 Years in State Prison For 2021 Richland Township Killing. Bucks County District Attorney’s Office. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://bucks.crimewatchpa.com/da/29567/post/new-jersey-man-sentenced-25-55-years-state-prison-2021-richland-township-killing 

[13] Oliveira, A. (2023, September 8). Las Vegas rapper arrested after he allegedly 'confessed' to murder in music video. New York Post. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://nypost.com/2023/09/08/las-vegas-rapper-arrested-after-he-allegedly-confessed-to-murder-in-music-video/ 

[14] O’Neill, J. (2021, June 18). NJ teens caught dumping murder victim in Pa. woods after leaving hazard lights on. New York Post. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://nypost.com/2021/06/18/nj-teens-caught-disposing-of-a-body-after-leaving-hazard-lights-on/ 

[15] Simon, M. (2009, October 30). They make thier mark in mug shot history. CNN. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/10/29/iowa.marker.disguise/ 

[16] The Biggest Finn4800. "The Biggest Finn4800 - Fadee Free ( Dir. Dre Paiid Visualz )". YouTube, July 19, 2023, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9PEkytzyqg 

Ep. 68 - Jerry Brudos & Fetishistic Disorders

[1] Collins, P. (2019, September 24). Understanding paraphilic disorders & the impact on criminality: Part One. Blue Line. https://www.blueline.ca/understanding-paraphilic-disorders-the-impact-on-criminality-part-one/  

[2] Crosby, J. (2017, June 28). Fetishistic disorder: Exploring fetishes, paraphilic disorders, and stigma-free treatment options. Thriveworks. https://thriveworks.com/blog/fetishistic-disorder/  

[3] Fisher, K. (2023, March 6). Paraphilia. StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554425/#:~:text=Paraphilias%20are%20persistent%20and%20recurrent,of%20paraphilia%20and%20paraphilic%20disorders.  

[4] Garza, A. (2022, May 23). 9 serial killers with frightening and grotesque fetishes. Ranker. https://www.ranker.com/list/serial-killers-who-had-fetishes/alisha-garza  

[5] Hernandez, A. (2024, March 11). Name change from pedophilia to minor attracted person. LinkedIn. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/name-change-from-pedophilia-minor-attracted-person-anthony-hernandez/  

[6] McManus, M., Hargreaves, P., Rainbow, L., & Alison, L. (2013, September 2). Paraphilias: Definition, diagnosis and treatment. F1000prime reports. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3769077/#:~:text=These%20include%20a%20variety%20of,urophilia%3B%20infantilism%3B%20telephone%20scatologia.  

[7] N/A. (2020). Jerome Brudos - victims, Family & Facts. Biography. https://www.biography.com/crime/jerome-brudos  

[8] N/A. (n.d.). Jerry Brudos. Criminal Minds Wiki. https://criminalminds.fandom.com/wiki/Jerry_Brudos#On_Criminal_Minds 

[9] Sussex Publishers. (n.d.). Fetishistic disorder. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/conditions/fetishistic-disorder  

[10] Wikimedia Foundation. (2024, March 12). Jerry Brudos. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Brudos  

Ep. 67 - Silent Shadows: The Legacy of Contract Killers

[1] Bauer, P. (2024, March 1). Richard Kuklinski. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Richard-Kuklinksi

[2] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2024, March 14). John Wilkes Booth. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Wilkes-Booth

[3] de Korte, L.R., Kleemans, E.R. Contract killings: a crime script analysis. Trends Organ Crim 25, 130–143 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-021-09411-4

[4] Gammon, K. (2024, March 15). How Does Blood Spatter in Space? Nautilus. (Web). Retrieved from: https://nautil.us/how-does-blood-splatter-in-space-533383/  

[5] Kowalske, Z., Pantalos, G., Oleiwi, A., & Williams, G. (2024, February 9). Bloodstain pattern dynamics in microgravity: Observations of a plot study in the next frontier of forensic science. Forensic Science International: Reports. Volume 9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsir.2024.100358  

[6] Mckinley, J. (2024, January 14). Hit men are easy to find in the movies. real life is another story. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2024/01/14/nyregion/hit-men-are-easy-to-find-in-the-movies-real-life-is-another-story.html#:~:text=There%20are%20also%20hit%20men,Godfather%E2%80%9D%20and%20%E2%80%9CGoodfellas.%E2%80%9D  

[7] Richard Kuklinski - Alcatraz east pigeon forge. Alcatraz East. (2023, November 10). https://www.alcatrazeast.com/crime-library/organized-crime/richard-kuklinski/  

[8] Sutton, J. (2023, February 27). The contract killer. Criminal Behaviours. https://www.criminalbehaviours.com/post/the-contract-killer  

[9] van Gestel, B. (2023). Contract killings by organised crime groups: The spread of deadly violence. In Organized Crime in the 21st Century: Motivations, Opportunities, and Constraints (pp. 137-151). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

[10] Yaneva, M., Ioannou, M., Hammond, L., & Synnott, J. (2018). Differentiating contract killers: A narrative‐based approach. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 57(1), 107-123.

Ep. 66 - Deception Unraveled: The Gypsy Rose Blanchard Story

[1] Carr, E. L. (Director). (2017). Mommy Dead and Dearest. [Film]. HBO Documentary Films.

[2] Gibson, Kelsie. (2024, January 8). The Biggest Revelations from The Prison Confessions of Gypsy Rose Blanchard. People. Internet. Retrieved from: https://people.com/the-prison-confessions-of-gypsy-rose-blanchard-biggest-revelations-8421990 

[3] Keegan, Harrison (2017, May 10). Everything you need to know about Dee Dee and Gypsy Rose Blanchard. Springfield News-Leader. Internet. Retrieved from: https://www.news-leader.com/story/news/local/2017/05/10/gypsy-blanchard-everything-you-need-know-case/101499166/ 

[4] Matthias, J., & Matthias, L. (Hosts). (2024, January 9). GYPSY ROSE EXPOSED - With Dr John Matthias, Forensic Psychologist. [Audio podcast episode]. In Hidden: A True Crime Podcast.  https://open.spotify.com/episode/4MMdU4dqYHt5cl0hCtTqWh?si=u9jHDezDQqu8KRLj5kD26Q 

[5] Mossburg, C., & Kaur, H. (2023, December 28). Gypsy Rose Blanchard, who pleaded guilty to helping kill her abusive mother, is released from prison. CNN. Internet. Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2023/12/28/us/gypsy-rose-blanchard-prison-release-cec/index.html

[6] N.a. (2023, December 29). Gypsy Rose Blanchard had her mother killed. Now free, what’s her story? Aljazeera. [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/12/29/gypsy-rose-blanchard-had-her-mother-killed-now-free-whats-her-story

[7] Roppolo, Michael. (2023, December 23). Gypsy Rose Blanchard released from prison after serving 7 years for mother’s murder. Here’s what to know about her case. CBS News. Internet. Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/gypsy-rose-blanchard-parole-dee-dee-blanchard/

[8] Smith, J., Diaz, J., & Valiente, A. (2018, January 4). How a young woman forced to use a wheel chair, treated for several illnesses ended up in prison for her mother’s murder. ABCNews. Internet. Retrieved from: https://abcnews.go.com/US/young-wheelchair-bound-woman-treated-illnesses-ended-prison/story?id=52138979 

Ep. 65 - Parts 1 & 2: Atlanta Child Murders & Behavioural Analysis

[1] A&E Television Networks. (2009). Atlanta child murderer is traced using rare nylon fiber. History.com. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/atlanta-child-murderer-is-questioned 

[2] Bonn, S. A. (2017, December 4). Criminal profiling: The original mind hunter. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/wicked-deeds/201712/criminal-profiling-the-original-mind-hunter#:~:text=In%20what%20is%20frequently%20cited,Jack%20the%20Ripper’s%20personality%2C%20behavioral 

[3] Cherry, K. (2024, February 4). How is behavioral analysis used as a treatment?. Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-behavior-analysis-2794865#:~:text=Applied%20behavior%20analysis%20(ABA)%20has,workplaces%2C%20and%20public%20health%20interventions.&text=All%20behaviors%20serve%20a%20purpose,be%20maladaptive%20for%20a%20person. 

[4] Douglas, J. E., & Burgess, M. (n.d.). Criminal Profiling - A Viable Investigative Tool Against Violent Crime | Office of Justice Programs. NCJRS Virtual Library. https://www.ojp.gov/ncjrs/virtual-library/abstracts/criminal-profiling-viable-investigative-tool-against-violent-crime#:~:text=The%20process%20generally%20involves%20(1,evaluation%20of%20preliminary%20police%20reports. 

[5] Douglas, J., & Olshaker, M. (1995). Atlanta. In Mindhunter (pp. 211–239). Chapter, Gallery Books. 

[6] Epstein, G. (1987, August 30). Atlanta Child Murders: Wayne Williams “very like” FBI profile. ajc. https://www.ajc.com/news/crime--law/atlanta-child-murders-williams-very-like-fbi-profile/IKyewPxrv06NXcUWz98F9J/ 

[7] FBI. (n.d.). Behavioral Analysis. FBI: Law Enforcement Resources [Internet]. https://le.fbi.gov/science-and-lab/behavioral-analysis [Retrieved 05 February 2024]. 

[8] Ishak, N. (2024, January 19). An alleged serial killer was convicted of the Atlanta child murders - but the truth may be even worse. All That’s Interesting. https://allthatsinteresting.com/atlanta-child-murders 

[9] Lambert, L. (n.d.). George Metesky. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/George-Metesky 

[10] Magazine, S. (2017, April 1). Unmasking the mad bomber. Smithsonian.com. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/unmasking-the-mad-bomber-180962469/ 

Ep. 63 - Burning Secrets: Anthony Kirkland & the Trail of Scorched Remains

[1] Banks, A. (2019, July 29). Anthony Kirkland: A serial killer in Ohio. Criminally Intrigued. Internet Source. Retrieved from: https://www.criminallyintrigued.com/blog/2019/7/28/anthony-kirkland-a-serial-killer-in-ohio 

[2] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Anthony Kirkland: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murderers. Anthony Kirkland | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Internet source. Retrieved from: https://murderpedia.org/male.K/k/kirkland-anthony.htm 

[3] Byers, S. (2002). Postmortem Changes to Bone. In K. Hanson & J. Jacobson (Eds.), Introduction to Forensic Anthropology (pp. 352 - 373). Allyn & Bacon.

[4] Correia, P. M. (1997). Fire modification of bone: a review of the literature. Forensic taphonomy: The postmortem fate of human remains, 275 - 293.

[5] Gallo, G., Fyhrie, M., Paine, C., Ushakov, S. V., Izuho, M., Gunchinsuren, B., ... & Navrotsky, A. (2021). Characterization of structural changes in modern and archaeological burnt bone: Implications for differential preservation bias. PloS one, 16(7), e0254529

[6] Keough, N., L’Abbé, E. N., Steyn, M., & Pretorius, S. (2015). Assessment of skeletal changes after post-mortem exposure to fire as an indicator of decomposition stage. Forensic Science International, 246, 17-24.

[7] Love, J. C., & Wiersema, J. M. (September 1, 2016). Skeletal Trauma: An Anthropological Review. Acad Forensic Pathol, 6(3), 463 – 477.

[8] Pope, E. J., & Smith, O. C. (2004). Identification of traumatic injury in burned cranial bone: an experimental approach. Journal of Forensic Science, 49(3), JFS2003286-10.

[9] Rosewood, J., & Lo, R. (2017). Anthony Kirkland. In The Big Book of Serial Killers (pp. 195–197). essay, LAK Publishing.

[10] Stiner, M. C., Kuhn, S. L., Weiner, S., & Bar-Yosef, O. (1995). Differential Burling, Recrystallization, and Fragmentation of Archaeological Bone. Journal of Archaeological Science, 22, 223 - 237

[11] Thompson, T., & Gowland, R. (n.d.) What Happens to Human Bodies When They Are Burned? Durham University Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Retrieved from: https://www.futurelearn.com/info/courses/forensic-archaeology-and-anthropology/0/steps/67911#:~:text=The%20Dehydration%20and%20Decomposition%20stages,also%20causes%20significant%20colour%20change.

[12] Trevas, D. (2020, August 18). Court Affirms Death Resentencing in Teen Murders. Court News Ohio. Internet source. Retrieved from: https://www.courtnewsohio.gov/cases/2020/SCO/0818/181265.asp 

[13] Tutor, P. M., Márquez-Grant, N., Rojas, C., V., Garcìa, A., M., Guzmán, I., P., & Sánchez, M., B. (2021). Through fire and flames: post-burning survival and detection of dismemberment-related tool  marks in cremated cadavers. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 135, 801-815.

[14] Wescott, D. J. (2019). Postmortem change in bone biomechanical properties: Loss of plasticity. Forensic Science International, 300, 164 - 169

Ep. 62 - Web of Deceit: Unraveling the Black Widow's Embrace

[1] Blum, D. (2013, January 28). The imperfect myth of the female poisoner. Wired. https://www.wired.com/2013/01/the-myth-of-the-female-poisoner/#:~:text=But%20because%20women%20seem%20to,the%20risks%20of%20physical%20confrontation. 

[2] CBC/Radio Canada. (2014, December 16). “internet black widow” denied any chance of Parole | CBC News. CBCnews. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/melissa-ann-shepard-denied-any-chance-of-parole-1.2874938 

[3] Chow, D. (2022, June 27). Intact woolly mammoth baby uncovered in Northwestern Canada. NBCNews.com. https://www.nbcnews.com/science/science-news/intact-wooly-mammoth-baby-uncovered-northwestern-canada-rcna35521 

[4] Kassam, A. (2016, March 25). Canada’s Black widow: The rosy-cheeked killer is back on the streets. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/25/canada-black-widow-released-melissa-shepard 

[5] Rose, T. (2019). Black Widows, Sexual Predators, and the Reality of Female Serial Killers (thesis). Retrieved 2024, from https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/server/api/core/bitstreams/682ac015-26ab-4153-851e-804ab6fef19e/content. 

[6] Taylor, R. (2023). Melissa Ann Shepard: Canada’s internet black widow. The Crime Wire. https://thecrimewire.com/true-crime/Canadas-Black-Widow 

[7] van Sambeck, B. (2023, December 19). Why are certain female killers called Black widows? it all goes back to a popular myth. Oxygen Official Site. https://www.oxygen.com/black-widow-murders/crime-news/why-are-female-killers-called-black-widows-what-are-they#:~:text=One%20kind%20of%20female%20murderer,usually%20partners%2C%20for%20financial%20reasons. 

[8] Wikimedia Foundation. (2023, December 26). Nannie Doss. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nannie_Doss 

Ep. 60 - The Dating Game Killer: Unmasking the Truth with Forensic Sketch Artists

If you or someone you may know has any information that could help identify those photographed, you can call 307-922-5295 or 714-375-5066.

[1] CBS News. (2010, September 25). The Killing Game. 48 Hours. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/48-hours-mystery-rodney-alcalas-killing-game/ 

[2] CBS/AP. (2016, September 20). Woman’s picture links serial killer to another cold case slaying. CBS News. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/rodney-alcala-serial-killers-picture-links-him-to-another-cold-case-slaying/ 

[3] Falcon, Gabriel. (2010, March 10). Convicted serial killer won on ‘Dating Game’. CNN. (Internet). Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/03/08/dating.game.killer/index.html 

[4] Handel, Sarah. (2010, March 11). Serial Killer Rodney Alcala’s Photo Trove Found. NPR News. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/sections/talk/2010/03/serial_killer_rodney_alcalas_p.html 

[5] Kettles, Sara. (2023, October 3). Rodney Alcala. Biography. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.biography.com/crime/rodney-alcala 

[6] Lecture notes from ANTH 3473 taught by Dr. Tanya Peckmann at Saint Mary's University

[7] n.a. (2020, August 31). Forensic art world. Forensic Art World - Forensic Art Service LLC | Welcome to the world of Forensic Art. https://forensicartist.com/new/

[8] n.a. (2022, April 29). Forensic artist job description, education requirements and salary expectations. How to Become a Crime Scene Investigator | CSI Education. https://www.crimesceneinvestigatoredu.org/forensic-artist/#:~:text=Forensic%20artists%20work%20closely%20with,and%20models%20of%20crime%20scenes.

[9] n.a. (2021, July 24). Condemned Inmate Rodney Alcala Dies of Natural Causes. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.cdcr.ca.gov/news/2021/07/24/condemned-inmate-rodney-alcala-dies-of-natural-causes/ 

[10] Pelisek, Christine. (2010, March 30). Orange County Judge Sentences Serial Killer and Dating Game Winner Rodney Alcala to Death (Updated). LA Weekly. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.laweekly.com/orange-county-judge-sentences-serial-killer-and-dating-game-winner-rodney-alcala-to-death-updated/ 

[11] Rosewood, J., & Lo, R. (2023). Rodney Alcala. In The Big Book of Serial Killers (pp. 9–11). LAK Publishing.

[12] Rudegeair, Peter. (2012, January 7). “Dating Game” killer sentenced for 1970s murder. (Internet). REUTERS. Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.comarticle/idUSBRE9060S1/ 

Ep. 59 - John Wayne Gacy & Psychopathy

[1] American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Antisocial Personality Disorder. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

[2] Anderson, NE, & Kiehl, KA. (2014). Psychopathy: developmental perspectives and their implications for treatment. Restor Neurol Neurosci.;32(1):103-17. doi: 10.3233/RNN-139001. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4321752/

[3] Berlinger, J. (Producer & Director). (2022). Conversations with a killer: The John Wayne Gacy Tapes [documentary]. Retrieved from https://www.netflix.com

[4] Burton, B., & Saleh, F. M. (2020, October 30). Psychopathy: Insights for General Practice. Psychiatric Times, 37(10). https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/psychopathy-insights-general-practice

[5] CDC. (n.d.) Behavior or Conduct Problems in Children. Center for Disease Control. https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/behavior.html#:~:text=Conduct%20Disorder%20(CD)%20is%20diagnosed,law%20and%20result%20in%20arrest.

[6] DeAngelis, T. (2022, March 1). A broader view of psychopathy. Monitor on Psychology, 53(2). https://www.apa.org/monitor/2022/03/ce-corner-psychopathy.

[7] Dutton, K. (2012). The Wisdom of Psychopaths: What Saints, Spies, and Serial Killers can Teach Us About Success. New York, NY: Scientific American/Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

[8] Kiehl, K.A. (n.d.). Research History. Kent A. Kiehl, Pd.D. [Internet]. https://kentkiehl.com/firsts/

[9] Kiehl, K. A., & Hoffman, M. B. (2011). The criminal psychopath: History, neuroscience, treatment, and economics. Jurimetrics, 51, 355–397. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4059069/#:~:text=Psychopaths%20are%20twenty%20to%20twenty,to%20most%20forms%20of%20treatment.

[10] Leistedt, S. J., & Linkowski, P. (2014). Psychopathy and the cinema: fact or fiction?. Journal of forensic sciences, 59(1), 167–174. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12359. 

[11] PsychopathyIs. (n.d.). Facts & Figures. PsychopathyIs [Internet]. https://psychopathyis.org/stats/

[12] PsychopathyIs. (n.d.). What is psychopathy?. PsychopathyIs [Internet]. https://psychopathyis.org/what-is-psychopathy/

[13] Sanz-García, A., Gesteira, C., Sanz, J., & García-Vera, MP. (2021). Prevalence of Psychopathy in the General Adult Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(2021). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.661044

Bonus - Witch Trial Miniseries

Pendle

[1] Castelow, Ellen. (2019, July 31). The Pendle Witches. Historic UK. Internet source. Retrieved from: https://www.historic-uk.com/CultureUK/The-Pendle-Witches/

[2] Chronicle - Medieval History Documentaries. (2022, April 16). 1612: The Disturbing Witch Trial That Shook Britain | The Pendle Witch Child | Chronicle. [Video]. Youtube. https://youtu.be/eQrva6RAkak?si=KuJhE_gTxQI0PqMx

[3] n.a. (n.d) The Pendle Witches. The History Press: The destination for history. Internet source. Retrieved from: https://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/articles/the-pendle-witches/

[4] n.a. (n.d.) Witches. Visit Pendle. Internet source. Retrieved from: https://www.visitpendle.com/witches

[5] Pott's Discovery of Witches in the County of Lancaster. https://publicdomainreview.org/collection/potts-s-discovery-of-witches-in-the-county-of-lancaster-1845/

Torsåker

[1]Gershon, L. (2022). The Easter Witches of Sweden. JSTOR Daily. https://daily.jstor.org/the-easter-witches-of-sweden/

[2] Hogman, H. (2021). Torsåker witch trials of 1674 - 1675 and Clergyman Hornaeus. Swedish History - Hans Högman. https://www.hhogman.se/witch-trials-sweden.htm

[3] Morbid A True Crime Podcast. (2023, October 16). The Torsåker Witch Trials [video] YouTube. Retrieved October 18, 2023, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbd0wmdjDFw&t=272s.. 

[4] Tiderman-Österberg, J. (2021). The Swedish witch trials: How to confront Dark Heritage. Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. https://folklife.si.edu/magazine/swedish-witch-trials-dark-heritage

Salem

[1] Blumberg, J. (2022, October 24). A brief history of the Salem Witch Trials. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-brief-history-of-the-salem-witch-trials-175162489/

[2] Greenleaf, T.C. (n.d.) The Salem Witch Trials. National Geographic Kids. https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/salem-witch-trials

[3] Lewis, J.J. (2021, March 11). The role of witch’s cake in Salem. ThoughCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-witchs-cake-3528206

[4] N.a. (n.d.). The salem village church record book: Facsimile of records kept by Rev. Samuel Parris. Danvers Archival Center at the Peabody Institute Library. https://www.danverslibrary.org/archive/village-church-record-book/#:~:text=The%20Salem%20Village%20Parish%20was,Lawson%20(1684%2D1688)

[5] Pruitt, S. (2023, September 29). Salem Witch Trials: Whowere the main accusers?. History.com. https://www.history.com/news/salem-witch-trials-accusers

[6] Wallenfeldt, J. (n.d.). Salem Witch Trials. Brittanica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Salem-witch-trials

Real (scanned) documents from the Salem Witch Trials: https://www.congregationallibrary.org/digital-collections/salem-witch-trials.


Ep. 58 - Jeffrey MacDonald & Crime Scene Reconstruction

[1] Buck, U., Naether, S., Räss, B., Jackowski, C., & Thali, M. J. (2013). Accident or homicide–virtual crime scene reconstruction using 3D methods. Forensic science international, 225(1-3), 75-84.

[2] Chisum, W. J. (2006). Crime reconstruction. In The Forensic Laboratory Handbook: Procedures and Practice (pp. 63-77). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

[3] Egan, N.W. (2017, January 23). Who is the real Jeffrey MacDonald? Exclusive interviews with his friends and family. People. https://people.com/crime/who-is-the-real-jeffrey-macdonald-exclusive-interviews-with-his-friends-and-family/. 

[4] Gardner, R. M., & Krouskup, D. (2018). Understanding the Nature of Physical Evidence. In Practical crime scene processing and investigation (pp. 19-48). CRC Press. 

[5] Maneli, M. A., & Isafiade, O. E. (2022). 3D forensic crime scene reconstruction involving immersive technology: A systematic literature review. IEEE Access, 10, 88821-88857.

[6] McGinniss, J. (1987). Fatal Vision. Signet Books. ISBN 978-0-451-41794-7. 

[7] N.a. (n.d.). Chronology. Just the facts on Jeffrey MacDonald case. https://www.macdonaldcasefacts.com/html/chronology.html.

[8] N.a. (n.d.). The MacDonald Family Murders. USA Today. (https://stories.usatodaynetwork.com/jeffreymacdonald/themacdonaldmurders/. 

[9] Pinsky, M. (1978, December 24). A Cranbury Father's ‘Obsession’ Links Son‐in‐Law to Murder. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1978/12/24/archives/new-jersey-weekly-a-cranbury-fathers-obsession-links-soninlaw-to.html.

[10] Realwomen/realstories. (2023, January 22). The Jeffrey MacDonald Murder Case: Crime Documentary - Did He Do It? [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tAUa_SNISTg&ab_channel=REALWOMEN%2FREALSTORIES. 

[11] Silvergate, H. (2013, May). Reflections on the Jeffrey MacDonald case. The Campion (May 2013): 52. https://www.nacdl.org/Article/May2013-ReflectionsontheJeffreyMacDona. 

[12] United States Attorney’s Office. (2021, September 17). Convicted murderer Jeffrey MacDonald’s appeal dismissed and consecutive life sentences remain intact. US Department of Justice. https://www.justice.gov/usao-ednc/pr/convicted-murderer-jeffrey-macdonald-s-appeal-dismissed-and-consecutive-life-sentences. 

[13] United States of America v. Jeffrey R. MacDonald. No. 15-7136. https://www.ca4.uscourts.gov/opinions/157136.P.pdf. 

[14] Woolverton, Paul. (2020, February 17). Jeffrey MacDonald case intrigues 50 years later. Star News Online. https://www.starnewsonline.com/story/news/2020/02/17/jeffrey-macdonald-case-intrigues-50-years-later/1692031007/. 

Ep. 57 - Nembhard Twins & Faults in Forensics

[1] ABC News. (2009, March 240. Did These Twins Commit the Perfect Crime? ABC News (Internet). Retrieved from: https://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=7159726&page=1

[2] ABC News. (2011, July 29). Twin Brothers Complicate Arizona Murder Investigation. ABC News (Internet). Retrieved from: https://abcnews.go.com/US/twins-complicate-arizona-murder-investigation/story?id=14189794

[3] Lacey, Marc. (2011, August 8). Identical Twins, One Charged in a Fatal Shooting, Create Confusion for the Police. New York Times (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/09/us/09twins.html

[4] Lamm, Jason D. (2011, August 3). Mistaken Identity of Identical Twins in Phoenix Murder Case. Jason D. Lamm Criminal Defense Team (Internet). Retrieved from: http://www.thephoenixcriminalattorney.com/blog/2011/august/mistaken-identity-of-identical-twins-in-phoenix-/

[5] Lecture notes from FRSC 2201 taught by Dr. Brenna Frasier at Saint Mary's University.

[6] Lecture Notes from FRSC 3310 taught by Dr. Michelle Patriquin at Saint Mary's University.

[7] Ma, Kai. (2011, August 26). Seeing Double. Time (Internet). Retrieved form: https://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2090549_2090540_2090539,00.html

[8] n.a. (2011, July 30). Double vision: Twin Arizona nightclub ‘killer’ may walk as prosecutors try to prove it was him… not near identical brother. DailyMail. (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2020436/Arizona-nightclub-killer-walk-witnesses-question-police-got-right-twin.html

[9]  n.a. (2021, March 12). Identical twins: When police fail to pick real criminal and let both go. The Business Standard (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.tbsnews.net/offbeat/identical-twins-when-police-fail-pick-real-criminal-and-let-both-go-215416

[10] n.a. The Fox(e) twins of Stevenage. A History of Preston in Hertfordshire (Internet). Retrieved from: https://prestonherts.co.uk/foxetwins.htm

[11]Taylor, K. (2020, June 25). The prosecutor’s fallacy. Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM), University of Oxford. https://www.cebm.ox.ac.uk/news/views/the-prosecutors-fallacy

[12]Taylor, Oliver. (2018, July 29). 10 Times Identical Twins Tried Getting Away With Crime. Listverse (Internet). Retrieved from: https://listverse.com/2018/07/29/10-times-identical-twins-tried-getting-away-with-crime/ 

[13]Zimmer, Carl. (2019, March 1). One Twin Committed the Crime — but Which One? A New DNA Test Can Finger the Culprit. The New York Times (Internet). Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/01/science/twins-dna-crime-paternity.html 

Ep. 56 - Machine Gun Kelly & The Prohibition

[1] Biography.com Editors. (2014). Machine Gun Kelly Biography. Biography.com. https://www.biography.com/crime/machine-gun-kelly

[2] Company, O. V. P. (n.d.). Machine Gun Kelly. Alcatraz History. https://www.alcatrazhistory.com/mgk.htm

[3] Daugherty, G. (2021). How Al Capone spent his time in Alcatraz. History.com. https://www.history.com/news/al-capone-alcatraz

[4] Encyclopedia.com. (n.d.). Kelly, Kathryn Thorne (1904-1998?). Encyclopedia.com. https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kelly-kathryn-thorne-1904-1998

[5] FBI. (2016, May 18). George “Machine Gun” Kelly. FBI. https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/machine-gun-kelly

[6] Magazine, S. (2016, September 26). This letter tells what Al Capone was up to in Alcatraz. Smithsonian.com. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/letter-tells-what-al-capone-was-alcatraz-180960578/

Ep. 55 - Yang Xinhai & Forensic Traumatology

[1] n.a. Forensic medical traumatology [PDF file]. Retrieved from: https://pathology.med.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/Forensic-Medicine-lecture4-en.pdf

[2] Wyatt, J. P., Payne-James, J., Norfolk, G., & Squires, T. (2015). Chapter 5 - Forensic pathology of physical injury. In Oxford Handbook of Forensic TermsMedicine. essay, Oxford University Press.

[3] Patriquin, M. (2022). Sharp Force Trauma (SFT) / Cut Mark Analysis [Lecture]. Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS.

Ep. 54 - Ongoing Cases: Lori Vallow & Jonathan Majors

Part One:

[1] Chappell, B. (2023, April 12). What to know about the Lori Vallow Daybell ‘zombie’ multiple-murder trial. National Public Radio (NPR). [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/2023/04/12/1169298124/lori-vallow-zombie-murder-trial

[2] Fetzer, R. (2022, July 20). Chad Daybell’s family says shallow graves of Tylee Ryan and JJ Vallow were not dug by their dad. CBS News - 48 Hours. [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/chad-daybell-graves-tylee-ryan-jj-vallow-not-dug-dad/

[3] Gualtieri, A. E. (2023, May 13). “Doomsday mom” Lori Vallow Daybell found guilty of murdering her 2 children. CBS News - 48 Hours. [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/watch-live-lori-vallow-daybell-verdict-stream-doomsday-mom-trial/ 

[4] Mannie, K. (2023, April 6). Lori Vallow trial: What to know about the ‘cult mom’ accused of killing her 2 kids. Global News. [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://globalnews.ca/news/9606953/lori-vallow-trial-cult-mom-killing-kids-jj-tylee-chad-daybell-idaho/

[5] McCarthy, L. (2023, May 12). Lori Vallow Daybell’s Journey From ‘Doomsday Mom’ to Convicted Murderer. The New York Times. [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/article/lori-vallow-daybell-trial.html

[6] Teurfs, K., Dunn, L. T., Narvaez, C., Singer, M. (2023, May 18). What did Lori Vallow Daybell do? A full timeline of the “doomsday mom” case up to her guilty verdict. CBS News - 48 Hours. [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/lori-vallow-chad-daybell-what-did-they-do-doomsday-mom-murders-case-timeline/ 


Part Two:

[1] Bromwich, J. E., & Marcius, C. R. (2023, June 29). N.Y.P.D. has evidence to arrest woman who said Jonathan Majors hit her. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/06/29/nyregion/jonathan-majors-accuser.html

[2] Carras, C. (2023a, March 26). Jonathan majors’ attorney claims woman recanted assault allegations after arrest. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/entertainment-arts/story/2023-03-26/jonathan-majors-arrested-released-assault-allegations-new-york

[3] Carras, C. (2023b, March 30). Jonathan majors’ attorney releases text messages allegedly sent by woman after arrest. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/entertainment-arts/story/2023-03-30/jonathan-majors-arrested-assault-text-messages

[4] Hammer, A. (2023, April 22). Jonathan majors claims new video proves he did not assault his girlfriend. Daily Mail Online. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-11996083/Jonathan-Majors-claims-new-video-proves-did-NOT-assault-girlfriend.html

[5] Italiano, L. (2023, June 27). Marvel’s jonathan majors files cross-complaint against his assault accuser. NYPD finds probable cause for arrest, sources say. Insider. https://www.insider.com/marvels-jonathan-majors-files-nypd-complaint-against-assault-accuser-sources-2023-6

[6] Lamont, T. (2023, February 26). “I knew it would be ok”: Jonathan majors on his remarkable rise from troubled teen to Hollywood A-lister. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2023/feb/26/jonathan-majors-interview-ant-man-and-the-wasp-quantumania-creed-3#:~:text=His%20father%2C%20Winfred%2C%20a%20quieter,to%20Texas%2C%20his%20parents%20separated.

[7] Press, T. A. (2023, March 27). Jonathan majors arrested on assault charge in New York. AP News. https://apnews.com/article/jonathan-majors-arrested-3ccf23bb407f5e6d2441ccc536b254f2

[8]  Rubin, R. (2023, March 30). Jonathan majors’ lawyer releases text messages he claims show woman taking blame for fight. Variety. https://variety.com/2023/film/news/jonathan-majors-text-messages-assault-arrest-1235568826/

[9] Sgueglia, K. (2023, March 30). Jonathan majors’ attorney provides purported texts from woman in alleged assault. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2023/03/30/entertainment/jonathan-majors-text-evidence/index.html

Ep. 53 - Oklahoma City Bombing & Domestic Terrorism

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Timothy McVeigh: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murderers. Timothy McVeigh | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. https://murderpedia.org/male.M/m1/mcveigh-timothy.htm 

[2] CSIS. The First U.S. National Strategy for Countering Domestic Terrorism. CSIS [Internet]. https://www.csis.org/analysis/first-us-national-strategy-countering-domestic-terrorism#:~:text=A4%3A%20The%20National%20Strategy%20for%20Countering%20Domestic%20Terrorism,strategy%20is%20built%20around%20four%20pillars%20of%20action

[3] Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (2023, June 7). Timothy McVeigh. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Timothy-McVeigh 

[4] FBI. (2020, November). Domestic Terrorism: Definitions, Terminology, and Methodology. FBI [Internet]. https://www.fbi.gov/file-repository/fbi-dhs-domestic-terrorism-definitions-terminology-methodology.pdf/view 

[5] FBI. (2016a, May 18). Oklahoma City bombing. FBI. https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/oklahoma-city-bombing 

[6] FBI (n.d.).Terrorism. FBI. https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/terrorism.

[7] FBI. (2016b, May 18). World trade center bombing 1993. FBI. https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/world-trade-center-bombing-1993 

[8] Government of Canada. (n.d.) Memorializing the Victims of Terrorism. Government of Canada [Internet]. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/victim/rr09_6/p3.html.

[9] Jones, S.G., Doxsee, C., & Harrington, N. (2020, July 30). The Tactics and Targets of Domestic Terrorists. CSIS [Internet]. https://www.csis.org/analysis/tactics-and-targets-domestic-terrorists .

[10] Lambert, L. (2016). Terry Nichols. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Terry-Nichols 

[11] Linder, D. O. (n.d.). The Oklahoma Bombing Conspirators. Profiles of the three Oklahoma City Bombing Conspirators: Timothy McVeigh, Terry Nichols, and Michael Fortier. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mcveigh/conspirators.html 

[12] Pascus, B. (2019, August 10). What is "domestic terrorism" and what can the law do about it?. CBS News [Internet]. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/what-is-domestic-terrorism-understanding-law-and-fbi-definitions-terrorist-activity-in-the-united-states/

[13] Jones, S. (2022, February 17). The Evolution of Domestic Terrorism. CSIS. https://www.csis.org/analysis/evolution-domestic-terrorism

[14] Wiegmann, B. (2019, May 08). Statement before the Committee on Homeland Security US House of Representatives at a hearing entitled “Confronting the Rise of Domestic Terrorism in the Homeland”. US Department of Justice. https://democrats-homeland.house.gov/imo/media/doc/Testimony-Wiegmann.pdf

Ep. 52 - Edward Snowden & Espionage

[1] Asp, D. (2022). Espionage Act of 1917 (1917). The First Amendment Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://www.mtsu.edu/first-amendment/article/1045/espionage-act-of-1917

[2] Barnes, J. E. (2022, August 15). What is the Espionage Act and how has it been used?. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/15/us/politics/espionage-act-explainer-trump.html 

[3] Espionage. (n.d.). The History Press. Retrieved from: /https://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/espionage/ 

[4] Espionage (2023, January 21). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Espionage

[5] Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 (1917-1918). (n.d.). National Constitution Cener. Retrieved from: https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/historic-document-library/detail/espionage-act-of-1917-and-sedition-act-of-1918-1917-1918

[6] Espionage Facts (2023). SpyMuseum. Retrieved from: https://www.spymuseum.org/education-programs/spy-resources/espionage-facts/

[7] Kaufmann, A. (2022, August 12). What is the Espionage Act? What to know from its original purpose to who has been charged. USA Today. Retrieved from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2022/08/12/what-is-the-espionage-act/10312311002/

[8] Office of the Director of National Intelligence & Admin. (n.d.). The Espionage Act of 1917. INTEL. Retrieved from: https://www.intelligence.gov/evolution-of-espionage/world-war-1/america-declares-war/espionage-act

[9] Wilmoth, A. (2023, May). Espionage and Intelligence, Early Historical Foundations. Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. Retrieved from:  https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/espionage-and-intelligence-early-historical-foundations


Ep. 51 - The Mystery of the Isdal Woman

[1] Dimuro, G. (2022). Spy, Murder Victim, Or Something Else? Inside The Decades-Long Mystery of the Isdal Woman. ATI. [Internet]. Retrieved from: https://allthatsinteresting.com/isdal-woman

[2] Ferrarin, E. (2022, February 01). The Isdal Woman Cold Case: Mystery Over Her Identity Endures Over 50 Years. A&E True Crime Blog: Stories & News [Internet]. https://www.aetv.com/real-crime/isdal-woman

[3] Higraff, M. & McCarthy, N. (Hosts). 2018-2021. Death in Ice Valley [Audio podcast]. BBC World Service & NRK.  

[4] Higraff, M. & McCarthy, N. (2019, June 25). Death in Ice Valley: New clues in Isdal Woman mystery. BBC News [Internet]. https://www.bbc.com/news/stories-48736937.

[5] n.a. (n.d.). Isdal Woman. https://theisdalwoman.com/ 

[6] N.a. (2022, May 06). Who Was The Isdal Woman and What Do We Know About Her Death?. Discovery Mysteries [Internet]. https://www.discoveryuk.com/mysteries/who-was-the-isdal-woman-and-what-do-we-know-about-her-death/

[7] Taylor, R. (2022, August 11). Who Is the Isdal Woman? The Crime Wire [Internet]. https://thecrimewire.com/true-crime/Who-Is-the-Isdal-Woman

Ep. 50 - Victoria Climbié & Forensic Parasitology

Inquiry Link: The Victoria Climbié Inquiry (publishing.service.gov.uk) 

[1] N.a. (n.d.). About Parasites. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/about.html. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[2] Castro, G.A. & Olson, L.J. (1996). Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Introduction to Parasitology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8262/. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[3] Cox, F.E.G. (2004). History of human parasitic diseases. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 18(2): 171-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2004.01.001.  [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[4] Fallis, A.M. (2015, March 04). Parasitology. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/parasitology. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[5] Government of UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2005, March). Wildlife Crime: A guide to the use of forensic and specialist techniques in the investigation of wildlife crime. Government of UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. http://www.tracenetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/2-wildlife-crime-forensics-guide.pdf?_gl=1*120bf5q*_ga*MTA2MzM4NjYxMC4xNjgyODYyMzcw*_ga_07NEEFKJ2N*MTY4Mjg2MjM2OS4xLjEuMTY4Mjg2MzM2OS4wLjAuMA. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[6] Jones, B.V. (2023, March 03). A brief history of parasitology. Veterinary Practice. https://www.veterinary-practice.com/article/history-of-parasitology. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[7] Mason, M. (n.d.). Guide to Parasitology. Environmentalparasitology.org. https://www.environmentalscience.org/parasitology [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[8] Mitchell, P. (2023). Ancient Egypt and Nubia. In Parasites in Past Civilizations and Their Impact upon Health (pp. 20-41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9780511732386.003. [Retrieved 27 April 2023].

[9] N.a. (n.d.). Parasitology: Field of Study, Definition and Classification. Microscope Master. https://www.microscopemaster.com/parasitology.html. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[10] N.a. (n.d.). Robert Koch - Facts. The Noble Prize. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1905/koch/facts/. [Retrieved 27 April 2023].

[11] N.a. (n.d.). Ronald Ross - Biographical. The Noble Prize. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1902/ross/biographical/. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[12] Sharma A., Bala M., & Singh N. (2018). Five Case Studies Associated with Forensically Important Entomofauna Recovered from Human Corpses from Punjab, India. J Forensic Sci & Criminal Invest. 7(5): 555721. DOI: 10.19080/JFSCI.2018.07.55572. [Retrieved 27 April 2023].

[13] N.a. (n.d.). Spotlight on: Parasitology. The Biologist Vol 61(4) p32-33. https://www.rsb.org.uk/biologist-features/spotlight-on-parasitology. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

[14] N.a. (n.d.). The Victoria Climbié Case Crime Files. Crimeandinvestigation.co.uk. https://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/victoria-climbie-case. [Retrieved 27 April 2023]. 

Ep. 49 - The Srebrenica Massacre & Forensic Botany

[1] Alotaibi, S. S., Sayed, S. M., Alosaimi, M., Alharthi, R., Banjar, A., Abdulqader, N., & Alhamed, R. (2020). Pollen molecular biology: Applications in the forensic palynology and future prospects: A review. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 27(5), 1185-1190.

[2] Ezegbogu, M. O. (2021). Identifying the scene of a crime through pollen analysis. Science & Justice, 61(3), 205-213.

[3] International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). (2018). Srebrenica: No Room for Denial. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from https://youtu.be/Sq77TySTst0.

[4] Kasprzyk, I. (2023). Forensic botany: who?, how?, where?, when?. Science & Justice.

[5] Mildenhall, D. C., Wiltshire, P. E., & Bryant, V. M. (2006). Forensic palynology: why do it and how it works. Forensic science international, 163(3), 163–172.

[6] Smith, R. J. (2022). Srebrenica massacre. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from https://www.britannica.com/event/Srebrenica-massacre

[7] Summers, V. (2019, July 30). What is forensic botany? Sciencing. Retrieved from https://sciencing.com/forensic-botany-14631.html

[8] Thomson Reuters. (2008, July 21). Timeline: What happened during the war in Bosnia? Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2023, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-warcrimes-karadzic-bosnia-idUSL2164446420080721

[9] The University of Western Australia. (2011). Forensic Palynology Fact Sheet. Spice. Retrieved from https://www.uwa.edu.au/study/-/media/Faculties/Science/Docs/Fact-Sheet-Forensic-palynology.pdf 

Ep. 48 - The Craigslist Killer & Digital Forensics

[1] Biography.com Editors. (April 2, 2014). Philip Markoff Biography. A&E; Television Networks. Retrieved from: https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/philip-markoff

[2] Delp, E., Memon, N., & Wu, M. (2009). Digital forensics. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 26(2), 14-15. 

[3] Fraga, Kaleena. (October 23, 2021). Doctor, Gambler, Murderer: The Harrowing Story of Craigslist Killer Philip Markoff. All That’s Interesting. Retrieved from: https://allthatsinteresting.com/craigslist-killer-philip-markoff

[4] Garfinkel, S. L. (2010). Digital Forensics Research: The next 10 years. Digital Investigation, 7, S64–S73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diin.2010.05.009 

[5] Interpol. (n.d.). Digital Forensics. INTERPOL. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from https://www.interpol.int/en/How-we-work/Innovation/Digital-forensics

[6] Janos, A. (July 2021). Richard Beasley, Philip Markoff and Others: The Many Faces of the Craigslist Killer. A&E. Retrieved from: https://www.aetv.com/real-crime/craigslist-killer-richard-beasley-philip-markoff

[7] Kaur, R., & Kaur, A. (2012). Digital forensics. International Journal of Computer Applications, 50(5), 5-9.

[8] Pollitt, M. (2010). A History of Digital Forensics. In: Chow, KP., Shenoi, S. (eds) Advances in Digital Forensics VI. DigitalForensics 2010. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 337. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15506-2_1

[9] Robert J. Currie & Steve Coughlan, “Electronic Evidence in Canada” in Stephen Mason, ed, Electronic Evidence, 3rd ed (Toronto: LexisNexis, 2012).

[10] Ryan, D. J., & Shpantzer, G. (2002, September). Legal aspects of digital forensics. In Proceedings: Forensics Workshop.

[11] Sweet, L. J. (2009, Jun 22). Craigslist slaying suspect Philip Markoff pleads not guilty. McClatchy - Tribune Business News https://login.library.smu.ca/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/wire-feeds/craigslist-slaying-suspect-philip-markoff-pleads/docview/461299654/se-2

[12] Understanding Digital Forensics: Process, techniques, and Tools. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2023, from https://www.bluevoyant.com/knowledge-center/understanding-digital-forensics-process-techniques-and-tools

[13] Zbrog, Matt. (N.d.). Forensic Casefile: Stopping the Craigslist Killer. Forensics Colleges. Retrieved from: https://www.forensicscolleges.com/blog/forensics-casefile-craigslist-killer

Ep. 47 - Casey Anthony & Odour Analysis

[1] n.a. (n.d.). Central Falls Police K-9 Unit. Central Falls Police Department [Internet]. https://cfpd.centralfallsri.gov/divisions/uniformed-division/k-9-unit/ [retrieved 19 February 2023].


[2] n.a. (n.d.). The (not so simple) Science of Smell: Why Certain Scents Smell Clean. Nyco [Internet]. https://www.nycoproducts.com/resources/blog/the-simple-science-of-smell-the-smell-of-clean/#:~:text=Essentially%2C%20a%20scent%20molecule%20must,known%20as%20the%20olfactory%20bulb [retrieved 19 February 2023].


[3] n.a. (n.d.) What is LIBS?. Applied Spectra [Internet]. https://appliedspectra.com/technology/libs.html#:~:text=Laser%20Induced%20Breakdown%20Spectroscopy%20(LIBS,to%20other%20elemental%20analysis%20techniques. [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[4] Boroff, D. (2018, April 09). Casey Anthony Triumphs again as judge rules against Zenaida Gonzalez in defamation suit. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/florida-judge-rules-casey-anthony-favor-lawsuit-article-1.2366411

[5] De Lange, C. (2011, May 17). Casey Anthony trial: Is the 'smell of death' evidence?. News Scientist [Internet]. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20487-casey-anthony-trial-is-the-smell-of-death-evidence/ [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[6] Escherich, K. (2008). TIMELINE: Caylee Anthony Case Captivates Country. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/story?id=6448060

[7] Esch, B. (Host).  (2020). Casey: Becoming the Most Hated. (episodes 1-4). [Audio podcast episode]. F01 Media. https://open.spotify.com/show/24WYvC5TeUNYjAZEv3LeCY?si=1e06c127d89b41db 

[8] Gibeault, S (2019, November 07)Why Does My Dog Sniff Everything?. American Kennel Club [Internet]. https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/training/why-does-my-dog-sniff-everything/#:~:text=The%20Nose%20Knows&text=First%2C%20their%20noses%20are%20far,scent%20receptors%20in%20their%20noses [retrieved 19 February 2023].

[9] Girlboss videos. (2022, Nov. 29). What really happened" | Casey Anthony Peacock Documentary: Where The Truth Lies (2022). [Video]. Youtube. https://youtu.be/g9HCtB1V4bE 

[10] Kross, B. (2023, January 30), Properties of Plasma. Supplemental Modules (Physical and Theoretical Chemistry) [Internet]. https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/States_of_Matter/Properties_of_Plasma#:~:text=A%20plasma%20is%20an%20ionized,the%20fourth%20state%20of%20matter. [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[11] Kubota, S. (2022). Casey Anthony makes Bombshell claims about daughter's death in 1st ever on-camera interview. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.today.com/popculture/tv/casey-anthony-makes-bombshell-claims-daughter-death-peacock-series-rcna59108

[12] Lance, N. (2008, October 28). Decomposition evidence in Casey Anthony's trunk, lab says. CNN [Internet]. http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/10/24/caylee.anthony/ [Retrieved 19 February 2023]. 

[13] LAVIETES, B., & McDONALD, J. (2011). Casey Anthony CSI: Outline of Heart Decal On Duct Tape. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/casey-anthony-trial-csi-finds-heart-shape-caylees/story?id=13830078

[14] Liston, B. (2011, June 04). Hair in Casey Anthony's trunk may be Caylee's: Expert. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-crime-anthony-idUSTRE75323G20110604

[15] Lohr, D. (2017, December 07). George Anthony's suicide note. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/george-anthony-suicide-note_n_888147

[16] Müller, P., Salminen, K., Kontunen, A., Karjalainen, M., Isokoski, P., Rantala, J., . . . Surakka, V. (2019). Online scent classification by ion-mobility spectrometry sequences. Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 5. doi:10.3389/fams.2019.00039. [Retrieved 19 February 2023].


[17] Rawlings, N. (2011, June 16). Casey Anthony CSI: A Triumph of High-Tech Forensics?. Time [Internet]. https://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2077937-2,00.html

[18] Staff, C. (2012, January 12). Casey Anthony claimed she got pregnant while passed out, says psychiatrist. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/casey-anthony-claimed-she-got-pregnant-while-passed-out-says-psychiatrist/

[19] Verheggen, F., Perrault, K. A., Megido, R. C., Dubois, L. M., Francis, F., Haubruge, E., . . . Stefanuto, P. (2017). The odor of death: An overview of current knowledge on characterization and applications. BioScience, 67(7), 600-613. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix046 [Retrieved 19 February 2023].

Ep. 46 - The Dancing Plague of 1518 & Psychogenic Disorders

[1] Andrews, E. (2015, August 21). What was the dancing plague of 1518? History.ccom [Internet]. https://www.history.com/news/what-was-the-dancing-plague-of-1518 [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[2] APA Dictionary definition of "psychogenic disorder". https://dictionary.apa.org/psychogenic-disorder

[3] Bauer, P. (2023, January 12). Dancing plague of 1518. Brittanica [Internet]. https://www.britannica.com/event/dancing-plague-of-1518 [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[4] Boss, L. P. (1997). Epidemic hysteria: a review of the published literature. Epidemiologic Reviews, 19(2), 233-243 [Retrieved 06 February 2022]. 

[5] Donaldson, L J, J Cavanagh, and J Rankin. The Dancing Plague: a Public Health Conundrum. Public health (London) 111.4 (1997): 201–204. Web. [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[6] Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders. Baylor College of Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7, 2023, from https://www.bcm.edu/healthcare/specialties/neurology/parkinsons-disease-and-movement-disorders/psychogenic-movement-disorders#:~:text=Psychogenic%20movement%20disorders%20are%20characterized,stress%20or%20some%20psychological%20condition

[7] Jones, T. (2000). Mass Psychogenic Illness: Role of the Individual Physician. Am Fam Physician, 62(12): 2649 - 2653. 

[8] Jones, T. (2000). What Is Psychogenic Ilness? Am Fam Physician, 62(12): 2655-2656.

[9] ed. Kuroski, J. (2022, June 11) Inside The Dancing Plague Of 1518, History’s Strangest Epidemic. All That’s Interesting [Internet]. https://allthatsinteresting.com/dancing-plague [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[10] Pennant-Rae, N. (2018, July 10) The Dancing Plague of 1518. The Public Domain  Review [Internet]. https://publicdomainreview.org/essay/the-dancing-plague-of-1518 [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

[11] Stone, J., & Edwards, M. J. (2011). How “psychogenic” are psychogenic movement disorders?. Movement disorders, 26(10), 1787-1788.

[12] Waller, J.  (2009, February 21). A forgotten plague: making sense of dancing mania. The Lancet, 373(9664): 6224-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60386-X [Retrieved 06 February 2022].

Ep. 45 - Impactful Psychological Experiments

[1] Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership and men; research in human relations (pp. 177–190). Carnegie Press..

[2] Behnke, S. (2009, April 1). Ethics rounds: Reading the Ethics Code more deeply. Monitor on Psychology, 40(4). https://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/04/ethics


[3] De Vos, J. (2009) ‘Now That You Know, How Do You Feel? The Milgram Experiment

and Psychologization’. Annual Review of Critical Psychology, 7, pp. 223-24.


[4] McLeod, S. (2017). The Milgram Shock Experiment. SimplyPsychology. Accessed from: https://www.simplypsychology.org/milgram.html


[5] Milgram, S. (1965). Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human relations, 18(1), 57-76.


[6] Lof Der Zotheid Psychologenpraktijk. (2019, April 25). The Milgram Experiment 1962 Full Documentary [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/rdrKCilEhC0


[7] Zimbardo, P. (1999). The story: An overview of the experiment. Stanford Prison Experiment. Retrieved January 5, 2023, from https://www.prisonexp.org/the-story 

Ep. 44 - Luka Magnotta & Killing for Fame

[1] 5 characteristics of a narcissist. Best Counseling Degrees. (2022, November 30). Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.bestcounselingdegrees.net/resources/characteristics-of-narcissists/ 

[2] Azam, J.-P., & Ferrero, M. (2016, December 1). Killing for the sake of infamy: The HEROSTRATOS syndrome and what to do about it. De Gruyter. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/peps-2016-0022/html?lang=en 

[3] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Luka Magnotta: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murderers. Luka Magnotta | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from http://www.murderpedia.org/male.M/m/magnotta-luka.htm 

[4] Brusie, C. (2017, June 27). Delusions of grandeur: How to spot them. Healthline. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/mental-health/delusions-of-grandeur#:~:text=Delusion%20of%20grandeur%20refers%20to,real%20and%20what%20is%20not 

[5] Bushman, Brad. (2017). Narcissism, Fame Seeking, and Mass Shootings. American Behavioral Scientist. 62. 000276421773966. 10.1177/0002764217739660

[6] Chapman, S. (2019, May 14). Deprive mass murderers of the fame they seek. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.chicagotribune.com/columns/steve-chapman/ct-perspec-chapman-vegas-shooter-20171011-story.html 

[7] Delusion of grandeur. GoodTherapy.org Therapy Blog. (2016). Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/psychpedia/delusion-of-grandeur 

[8] Hanson, H. (2022, September 6). Canadian killer Luka Magnotta's life behind bars is unusual & he even married another inmate. Narcity. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.narcity.com/luka-magnotta-now-is-almost-unrecognizable-after-several-years-in-prison 

[9] Healy, M. (2015, October 3). For mass shooters, achieving fame -- or infamy -- is a frequent driver. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-mass-shooters-fame-infamy-20151002-story.html 

[10] N/A (2020, December 13). Mass murderers and media coverage: The fame-seeking killers. The Andersonian. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://andersonian.com/2020/12/13/mass-murderers-and-media-coverage-the-fame-seeking-killers/ 

[11] Zarembo, A. (2016, June 18). Are the media complicit in mass shootings? Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 27, 2022, from https://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-orlando-shooting-media-20160618-snap-story.html 

Ep. 43 - Samuel Little & Victimology, MO's, and Signatures

[1] FBI. (2019, October 06). FBI Seeking Assistance Connecting Victims to Samuel Little’s Confessions. FBI. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/samuel-little-most-prolific-serial-killer-in-us-history-100619. 

[2] Abdollah, T. (2013, April 07). More cases connected to L.A. serial killer suspect. Star Advertiser.  https://www.staradvertiser.com/2013/04/07/breaking-news/more-cases-connected-to-l-a-serial-killer-suspect/

[3] Beeman, A. (2021, April 15). Here's what we know about serial killer Samuel Little's childhood. Grunge. https://www.grunge.com/383411/heres-what-we-know-about-serial-killer-sam-littles-childhood/

[4] Beeman, A. (2022, September 21). Mary Brosley Was Samuel Little’s First Murder Victim. Heavy. https://heavy.com/entertainment/2020/08/mary-brosley-samuel-littles-first-victim/

[5] Brogle, C. (2020, April 12). What Murder Did Serial Killer Sam Little Go To Trial For, Years Before Finally Facing Justice?. Oxygen True Crime. https://www.oxygen.com/catching-a-serial-killer-sam-little/crime-news/sam-little-case-acquitted-patricia-mount

[6]Diaz, J. (2020). Samuel Little, The Nation’s Most Prolific Serial Killer, Dies At 80. National Public Radio. Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/2020/12/31/951918219/samuel-little-the-nations-most-prolific-serial-killer-dies-at-80

[7] Douglas, J. E., & Munn, C. (1992). Violent crime scene analysis: modus operandi, signature, and staging. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 61(2), 1-11.

[8] Douglas, J. E., & Olshaker, M. (1998). The Most Dangerous Game. In Mindhunter: Inside the FBI's Elite Serial Crime Unit. (pp. 254-276). Simon and Schuster. 

[9] Fattah, E. (2000). Victimology: Past, present and future. Criminologie, 33(1), 17-46.

[10] Hazelwood, R. R., & Warren, J. I. (2003). Linkage analysis: Modus operandi, ritual, and signature in serial sexual crime. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 8(6), 587 - 598. 

[11] Karapetyan, M. V. (2020). The Causality of Serial Killers' Crime in Early Childhood [Conference presentation]. 10th International Conference on Humanities, Psychology & Social Sciences, Berlin, Germany. https://www.dpublication.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/857-HPS.pdf

[12] Morton, R. J., Tillman, J. M., & Gaines, S. J. (2014). Serial murder: Pathways for investigations. Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Justice.

[13] N.a. (2019, december 05). Samuel Little. Biography. https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/samuel-little. 

[14] Smith, B.H. (2020, March 25). Who Is The Most Prolific Serial Killer In History? Everything We Know About Samuel Little. Oxygen True Crime. https://www.oxygen.com/catching-a-serial-killer-sam-little/crime-news/worst-serial-killer-history-samuel-little-confessions.

[15] Texas Department of Public Safety (2021, December 01). New Details Released in Unsolved Samuel Little Murders. Texas Department of Public Safety. https://www.dps.texas.gov/news/new-details-released-unsolved-samuel-little-murders#:~:text=Little%20had%20a%20photographic%20memory,10%20years%20and%2040%20miles

[16] The Associated Press (2020, December 30). Samuel Little, the man called most prolific serial killer in U.S. history, dies at 80. The Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/obituaries/story/2020-12-30/samuel-little-most-prolific-serial-killer-in-us-history-dies. 

[17] TT. (2022, April 27). Samuel Little (Serial Killer Biography). Practical Psychology. https://practicalpie.com/samuel-little/.

Ep. 42 - Cults III: Anthill Kids & Types of Cults

[1] A&;E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). A cult leader kills one of his followers. History.com. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/a-cult-leader-kills-one-of-his-followers

[2] Anton. (2021, November 1). Categories of cults. Apologetics Index. Retrieved November 19, 2022, from https://www.apologeticsindex.org/267-categories-of-cults

[3] Beeby, D. (2008, March 10). Cult Killer's Prison Art for sale on U.S. website. thestar.com. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20200708081950/https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2008/03/10/cult_killers_prison_art_for_sale_on_us_website.html

[4] Best, Jonica V. Carlton, "Cults: A Psychological Perspective" (2018). Theses and Dissertations. 361. https://csuepress.columbusstate.edu/theses_dissertations/361

[5] Blakeley, S. (n.d.).What is a cult?. Study.com. Retrieved November 19, 2022, from https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-cult-definition-characteristics-behavior.html

[6] CBC/Radio Canada. (2011, February 28). Inmate suspected in Cult Leader's death: RCMP | CBC News. CBCnews. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/inmate-suspected-in-cult-leader-s-death-rcmp-1.1111723

[7] CBC/Radio Canada. (2011, May 7). Fellow inmate charged in Cult Leader's death | CBC news. CBCnews. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/fellow-inmate-charged-in-cult-leader-s-death-1.1111108

[8] CBC/Radio Canada. (2012, March 5). Cult leader Roch Thériault's killer gets life | CBC news. CBCnews. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/cult-leader-roch-th%C3%A9riault-s-killer-gets-life-1.1204925

[9] Kaihla, P., Ross L., McLaughlin, A., & Came, B. "The ant hill kids." Maclean's, vol. 106, no. 6, 8 Feb. 1993, pp. 18+. Retrieved from: https://archive.macleans.ca/article/1993/2/8/the-ant-hill-kids

[10] Morehead, J. (n.d.). What is a Cult? What is a cult? Retrieved November 19, 2022, from https://www.apologeticsindex.org/c09a04.htm

[11] Palmer, S. J., Geoffroy, M., & Gareau, P. L. (2021). Chapter 11: Roch Theriault and the Holy Moses Mountain Family (“Ant Hill Kids”). In Mystical geography of quebec: Catholic schisms and New Religious Movements (pp. 247–266). SPRINGER NATURE. 

[12] Roos, R. (2020, May 20). The ant hill kids: Break your legs with a sledgehammer or go to Hell - CVLT Nation. CVLT Nation - The Home of Underground Culture. Retrieved from https://cvltnation.com/ant-hill-kids-break-legs-sledgehammer-go-hell/

[13] Vandonk, T. (Sept 10, 2020). BEHIND THE CRIMES: Murder, mutilation, abuse part of life at Ant Hill Kids commune. Toronto.com. Retrieved from https://www.toronto.com/news/crime/behind-the-crimes-murder-mutilation-abuse-part-of-life-at-ant-hill-kids-commune/article_1a9021c1-c994-5323-964b-7d73c4763744.html

Ep. 41 - Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh Communities & Forensic Epidemiology

[1]  n.a. (n.d.). Case Study III – Salmonellosis in Oregon. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/phlp/docs/fe14.pdf. 

CDC. (2022). Questions and Answers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/index.html

[2] CDC. (n.d.). Epidemiology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/careerpaths/k12teacherroadmap/epidemiology.html. 

[3] Fedak, K.M., Bernal, A., Capshaw, A.Z., & Gross, S (2015, September 30). Applying the Bradford Hill criteria in the 21st century: How data integration has changed causal inference in molecular epidemiology. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 12(14). doi: 10.1186/s12982-015-0037-4. 

[4] Koehler, S.A., & Freeman, M.D. (2013, October 28). Forensic epidemiology: a method for investigating and quantifying specific causation. Forensic Science Medicine and Pathology, 9(4). DOI 10.1007/s12024-013-9513-8. 

[5] Vianna, F.S.L., Lopez-Camelo, J.S., Leite, J.C.L., Sanseverino, M.T.V., Dutra, M.dG., Castilla, E.E., & Schüler-Faccini, L. (2011, July 06). Epidemiological surveillance of birth defects compatible with thalomide embryopathy in Brazil. PLoS One, 6(7): e21735.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021735. 

Ep. 40 - Cults Pt. 1: Aum Shinrikyo & Biological Warfare

[1] CDC. (2020). Anthrax. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/index.html

[2] CDC. (2018). Facts About Sarin. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/sarin/basics/facts.asp

[3] Frischknecht, F. (2003). The history of biological warfare: Human experimentation, modern nightmares and lone madmen in the twentieth century. EMBO reports, 4(S1), S47-S52.

[4] Guillemin, J. (2006). Scientists and the history of biological weapons: A brief historical overview of the development of biological weapons in the twentieth century. EMBO reports, 7(S1), S45-S49.

[5] Hooker, E. (2022). Biological Warfare. eMedicineHealth. Retrieved from: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm

[6] Kristof, N.D. (1995, March 23). TERROR IN TOKYO: THE OVERVIEW; Japanese Police Find Chemicals And Gas Masks at Sect's Offices. The New York Times.  https://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/23/world/terror-tokyo-overview-japanese-police-find-chemicals-gas-masks-sect-s-offices.html.

[7]  Macwilliams, Mary Wheeler (2008). Japanese Visual Culture: Explorations in the World of Manga and Anime. M. E. Sharpe. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-7656-1602-9.

[8] N.A. (1995, October 15). Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction:

A Case Study on the Aum Shinrikyo. Senate Government Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. https://irp.fas.org/congress/1995_rpt/aum/part05.htm

[9] N.A (2018, July 06). Aum Shinrikyo: The Japanese cult behind the Tokyo Sarin attack. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35975069.

[10] N.A. (n.d.). Chouetsu Sekai. Myanimelist. https://myanimelist.net/anime/38196/Chouetsu_Sekai#:~:text=Aum%20Shinrikyou%20is%20a%20Japanese,sarin%20attack%20the%20previous%20year.

[11] N.A. (n.d.) Tokyo subways are attacked with sarin gas. History.com. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/tokyo-subways-are-attacked-with-sarin-gas.

[12] Pletcher, K. (n.d.). Tokyo subway attack of 1995. Brittanica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Tokyo-subway-attack-of-1995.

[13] Shwartz, M. (2001). Biological warfare: an emerging threat in the 21st century. Stanford News Service. Retrieved from: https://news.stanford.edu/pr/01/bioterror117.html

[14] Simons, E. (2006) Faith, Fanaticism, and Fear: Aum Shinrikyo--The Birth and Death of a Terrorist Organization. Forensic Examiner, 15(1): 37-45. https://www.ojp.gov/ncjrs/virtual-library/abstracts/faith-fanaticism-and-fear-aum-shinrikyo-birth-and-death-terrorist

Bonus Episode - Resources & Sources

NWAC (Native Women's Association of Canada) Elder Support Line | Canada-Wide

Available Monday-Friday 9AM-11AM EST & 1PM-3PM EST

Call 888-664-7808


First Nations, Métis & Inuit Hope for Wellness Help Line | Canada-Wide

If you’re experiencing emotional distress and want to talk, call the First Nations, Métis & Inuit Hope for Wellness Help Line: 1-855-242-3310. Available 24/7, Canada-wide. 


Network for Aboriginal Mental Health Research – Mental Health Programs for Aboriginal People in Canada | Canada-Wide


Shkaabe Makwa | Ontario

For more information about the program, please contact us at shkaabemakwa@camh.ca


Urban Native Youth Association: Native Youth Health & Wellness Centre | Vancouver, British Columbia


Wabano Centre | Ontario


Native Counselling Services of Alberta | Alberta


Healing in Colour | Canada Wide


The Nunavut Kamatsiaqtut Help Line | Nunavut

Available in Inuktitut and English, 24/7. Call 867-979-3333 or toll-free 1-800-265-3333.


Hope for Wellness Helpline | Nunavut

Available in all Nunavut languages, 24/7. Call toll-free 1-855-242-3310.


[1] Carlton, G. (2022, April 27). The dark history of Canada's 'Starlight tours' that saw police leave indigenous people to freeze to death. All That's Interesting. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://allthatsinteresting.com/starlight-tours

[2] Carrier Sekani Family Services. (n.d.). Highway of Tears. Retrieved from https://highwayoftears.org/

[3] CBC News. (2005). Who was Neil Stonechild? CBC News Indepth: Neil Stonechild. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://web.archive.org/web/20180811171332/http://www.cbc.ca/news2/background/stonechild/

[4] CTV Saskatoon. (2018, May 4). Man accusing Saskatoon police of conducting A 'starlight tour' hires lawyer experienced with the allegation. Saskatoon. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://saskatoon.ctvnews.ca/man-accusing-saskatoon-police-of-conducting-a-starlight-tour-hires-lawyer-experienced-with-the-allegation-1.3916184

[5] Government of Canada. (2022, January 17). Reducing the number of indigenous children in care. Indigenous Services Canada. Retrieved from https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1541187352297/1541187392851

[6] Highway of Tears Symposium Recommendations Report. (2006, June 16). Retrieved from https://highwayoftears.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Highway-of-Tears-Symposium-Recommendations-Report-January-2013.pdf

[7] Meagan Campbell. (2016, April 8). New light on Saskatoon's 'Starlight tours'. Macleans.ca. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/new-light-on-saskatoons-starlight-tours/

[8] Mythicalmethods. (2022, June 3). The many colors of the goddess: Pana and Pinga; Inuit goddesses of the soul. HubPages. Retrieved from: https://discover.hubpages.com/religion-philosophy/The-Many-Colors-of-the-Goddess-Pana-and-Pinga-Inuit-Goddesses-of-the-Soul

[9] N.a. (n.d.) Saskatoon police chief admits starlight cruises are not new.The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Sep 21 2022 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Saskatoon+police+chief+admits+starlight+cruises+are+not+new.-a0105369747

[10] N.a. (2016, March 31). Someone at City Police Headquarters Deleted 'Starlight Tour' references on its Wikipedia page. Saskatoon StarPhoenix. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://web.archive.org/web/20160401195746/https://thestarphoenix.com/storyline/someone-at-city-police-headquarters-deleted-starlight-tour-references-on-its-wikipedia-page/

[11] Sabo, D. (2016, June 6). Highway of Tears. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/highway-of-tears

[12] The Canadian Press. (2018, December 19). MAN files complaint against police, says officers left him outside Saskatoon. Global News. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://globalnews.ca/news/4165448/saskatoon-filed-complaint-police-alleged-starlight-tour/

[13] The Honourable Mr. Justice David H. Wright, Commissioner. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into matters relating to the Death of Neil Stonechild. Publications Centre. (2004). Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://publications.saskatchewan.ca/#/products/9462

[14] Two Worlds Collide. (2011). National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://www.nfb.ca/film/two_worlds_colliding/.

Ep. 39 - Plane Crashes & Forvensic Engineering

[1] Causes of Fatal Accidents by Decade. Plane Crash Info. http://www.planecrashinfo.com/cause.htm [Retrieved 08 September 2022].

[2] Government of Canada, T. S. B. of C. (2019, June 14). Swissair 111 investigation report - executive summary. Transportation Safety Board of Canada. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/medias-media/fiches-facts/a98h0003/sum_a98h0003.html 

[3] Gramlich, J. (2022, February 03). What the data says about gun deaths in the U.S.. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/02/03/what-the-data-says-about-gun-deaths-in-the-u-s/ [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 

[4] Gregersen, E. (2014, March 24). Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 disappearance. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 9, 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/event/Malaysia-Airlines-flight-370-disappearance 

[5] Kennedy, L. (2021, July 12). What happened to TWA Flight 800? History.com. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.history.com/news/twa-flight-800-crash-investigation 

[6] Langewiesche, W. (2019, July 1). What really happened to Malaysia's missing airplane. The Atlantic. Retrieved September 9, 2022, from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2019/07/mh370-malaysia-airlines/590653/ 

[7] Lewis, R. (2017). TWA Flight 800. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/TWA-flight-800 

[8] Maltry, G.W. (2018, April 27). Airplane Crash Analysis. Engineering Design & Testing Corporation. https://www.edtengineers.com/blog-post/airplane-crash-analysis [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 


[9] n.a. (n.d.). What is Forensic Engineering? Envista Forensics. https://www.envistaforensics.com/en-ca/our-company/what-is-forensic-engineering/ [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 


[10] n.a. (2021, June 08). The Most Common Causes of Aviation Accidents. North Central Institute. https://nci.edu/2021/06/08/the-most-common-causes-of-aviation-accidents/ [Retrieved 08 September 2022].

[11] Ranter, H. (n.d.). Aviation Safety Network > Statistics > worst accidents > 10 worst accidents in North America. Aviation Safety Network > Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://aviation-safety.net/statistics/worst/worst.php?continent=NA 

[12] Swopes, B. (2022, July 17). Boeing 747-131 archives. This Day in Aviation. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.thisdayinaviation.com/tag/boeing-747-131/ 

[13] Tikkanen, A. (2017). Swissair Flight 111. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/event/Swissair-flight-111 

[14] Tyagi, V. (2021, March). Role of Forensic Science in Air Accidents Investigation. Journal on Contemporary Issues of Law, 7(3): 130-143. https://jcil.lsyndicate.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/09.-ROLE-OF-FORENSIC-SCIENCE-IN-AIR-ACCIDENTS-INVESTIGATION.pdf [Retrieved 08 September 2022].


[15] https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/AAR0003.pdf


[16] Plane crash and Fear of Flying Statistics. FlyFright. https://flyfright.com/statistics/ [Retrieved 08 September 2022]. 

Ep. 38 - Alexander Litvinenko & Radiation Poisoning

[1] n.a. (2006, November 25). Alexander Livtinenko. The Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1535094/Alexander-Litvinenko.html

[2] BBC News (2016, 21 January). Alexander Litvinenko: Profile of murdered Russian spy. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-19647226

[3] BBC News. (2016, January 27). Timeline: Alexander Litvinenko death case. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-30929940

[4] Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. (2012, July). Fact sheet: Polonium-210. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from http://www.nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/pdfs/Fact_Sheets/Polonium-210-July-2012-eng.pdf

[5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, January 7). Radiation studies: CDC - radiation: Polonium-210. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/polonium-210.htm

[6] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, August 6). Health effects of radiation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/health.html

[7] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, July 28). Radiation and your health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/default.htm

[8] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, May 17). Radiation studies: CDC - what is radiation? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/what_is.html

[9 ] Harding, L. (2016, January 19). Alexander Litvinenko: the man who solved his own murder. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2016/jan/19/alexander-litvinenko-the-man-who-solved-his-own-murder

[10] Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2020, November 7). Radiation sickness. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/radiation-sickness/symptoms-causes/syc-20377058

[11] Miller, C. W., Whitcomb, R. C., Ansari, A., McCurley, C., Nemhauser, J. B., & Jones, R. (2012). SPECIAL REPORT: Murder by Radiation Poisoning: Implications for Public Health. Journal of environmental health, 74(10), 8-13.

[12] Owen, R. The Litvinenko Inquiry. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/493860/The-Litvinenko-Inquiry-H-C-695-web.pdf

[13] Sencen, L. (2015, July 21). Radiation sickness. NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/radiation-sickness/

[14] Staunton, D. (2016, January 21). The life and death of Alexander Litvinenko. The Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/uk/the-life-and-death-of-alexander-litvinenko-1.2506037.

[15] Simkin, J. (2013, May). Alexander Woollcott. Spartacus Educational. Retrieved from https://spartacus-educational.com/MDlitvinenko.htm 

[16] US EPA. (2022, June). Radiation Basics. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.epa.gov/radiation/radiation-basics

[17] Weiss, J. F., & Landauer, M. R. (2009). History and development of radiation-protective agents. International journal of radiation biology, 85(7), 539-573.

Ep. 37 - Ray Krone & Forensic Podiatry

[1] Burrow, J. G. (2016). The use of the Podotrack in forensic podiatry for collection and analysis of bare footprints using the Reel method of measurement. Science & Justice, 56(3), 216-222.

[2] Krishan, K., Kanchan, T., & DiMaggio, J. A. (2015). Emergence of forensic podiatry—a novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences. Forensic science international, 255, 16-27.

[3] Mukhra, R., Krishan, K., & Kanchan, T. (2018). Bare footprint metric analysis methods for comparison and identification in forensic examinations: A review of literature. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 58, 101-112.

[4] n.a. (n.d.). Ray Krone. Innocence Project. Retrieved from: https://innocenceproject.org/cases/ray-krone/

[5] n.a. (2012). Ray Krone. The National Registry of Exonerations. Retrieved from: https://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/Pages/casedetail.aspx?caseid=3365

[6] n.a. (n.d.), Ray Krone. Witness to Innocence. Retrieved from: https://www.witnesstoinnocence.org/single-post/ray-krone

[7] Nirenberg, M. (2016). Meeting a forensic podiatry admissibility challenge: a Daubert case study. Journal of forensic sciences, 61(3), 833-841

[8] Pal, S. (2017, May 22). From prints to prison: Forensic podiatry and Gait Analysis Gain Ground: Lower Extremity Review Magazine. Lower Extremity Review Magazine | Rehabilitation • Trauma • Diabetes • Biomechanics • Sports Medicine. Retrieved from https://lermagazine.com/cover_story/from-prints-to-prison-forensic-podiatry-and-gait-analysis-gain-ground

[9] Sherrer, H, (2003, March). Twice Wrongly Convicted of Murder- Ray Krone Is Set Free After 10 Years. Justice Denied Magazine, 2(9). http://forejustice.org/wc/ray_krone_JD_vol2_i9.htm

[10] Vernon, W. (2006). The development and practice of forensic podiatry. Journal of clinical forensic medicine, 13(6-8), 284-287.

Ep. 36 - Richard Ramirez & Stalking pt. 2

[1] Carlo, P. (2006). The Night Stalker: The Life and Crimes of Richard Ramirez. Pinnacle Books.

[2] Holmes, R.M. (2001). Criminal stalking: An analysis of the various of the various tyologies of stalkers. In J.A. Davis (Ed.), Stalking crimes and victim protection: prevention, intervention, threat assessment, and case management (pp. 12-29). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

[3] Mullen, P.E. (2000). Erotomania (pathologies of love) and stalking. In F. Flack (Ed), The Hatherleigh guide to psychiatric disorders, part II (pp. 145-163). Long Island City, NY: Hatherleigh Company. 

[4]Mullen P.E., Pathe, M., & Purcell, R. (2001). The management of stalkers. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7(5), 335-342. doi: 10,1192/apt.7.5.335.

[5] Rosewood J, Lo R. The Big Book of Serial Killers. Bolton (ON): LAK Publishing; 2017. 289-292.

[6] Russel, T., Holzman, E., Saidman, A., & Walsh, T. (Producers). (2021). Night Stalker: The Hunt For A Serial Killer. [TV series]. Netflix.

[7] Sheridan, L.P., & Boom, J. (2002). Stalker typologies: Implications for law enforcement. In J. Boon & L. Sheridan (Eds.), Stalking and psychosexual obsession: Psychological perspectives for prevention, policing and treatment (pp. 63-82). Chichester, UK: Wiley.

[8] Watt, M. C. (2014). ”Every Move You Make, Every Step You Take, I’ll Be Watching You”: Stalking. In Explorations in Forensic Psychology: Cases in Criminal and Abnormal Behaviour (pp. 111-141). [VitalSource Bookshelf 10.0.2].  Retrieved from vbk://978017672814.

[9] Zona, M.A., Sharma, K.K., & Lane, J.C. (1993). A comparative study of erotomanic and obsessional subjects in a forensic sample. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38(4), 894-903. 

[10] Zona, M.A., Palarea, R.E., & Lane J.C. (1998). Psychiatric diagnosis and the offender-victim typology of stalking. In J. R. Meloy (Ed.), The Psychology of stalking: Clinical and forensic perspectives (pp. 69-84). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 

Ep. 35 - Patricia Allen & Stalking pt. 1

[1] Best, J. (2016, June 6). Stalking. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/stalking-crime

[2] Criminal Code, R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46.

[3] Dawn Canada. Crisis Hotlines. https://www.dawncanada.net/issues/crisis-hotlines/

[4] Government of Canada (2021, December 08). Stalking is a crime called criminal harassment. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/fv-vf/stalk-harc/har.html

[5] Government of Canada. (2009, April 09). Criminal Harassment: Stalking. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/health-promotion/stop-family-violence/publications/criminal-harassment-stalking.html

[6] Gregson, C.B. (1998, January). California’s Antistalking Statute: The Pivotal Role of intent. Golden State University Law Review, 28(2): 221-263. https://digitalcommons.law.ggu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1726&context=ggulrev

[7] R. v. Mills, [1999] 3 S.C.R. 668. 

[8] Spitzberg, B. H., & Cupach, W. R. (2007). The state of the art of stalking: Taking stock on the emerging literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 64–86. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.05.001. 

[9] Statistics Canada. (2020). Table 1: Police-reported crime for selected offences, Canada, 2019 and 2020. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2021001/article/00013/tbl/tbl01-eng.htm

[10] The National Association of Women and the Law (NAWL). (1993, June 01). Submission to the Legislative Committee on Bill C-126, An Act to Amend the Criminal Code and the Young Offenders Act. https://nawl.ca/submission-to-the-legislative-committee-on-bill-c-126-an-act-to-amend-the-criminal-code-and-the-young-offenders-act/

[11] Watt, M. C. (2014). ”Every Move You Make, Every Step You Take, I’ll Be Watching You”: Stalking. In Explorations in Forensic Psychology: Cases in Criminal and Abnormal Behaviour (pp. 111-141). [VitalSource Bookshelf 10.0.2].  Retrieved from vbk://978017672814.

[12] Way, R.C. (1994). The Criminalization of Stalking: An Exercise in Media Manipulation and Political Opportuuism. McGill Law Journal, 39(379): 379-400. https://lawjournal.mcgill.ca/wp-content/uploads/pdf/517767-39.2.Way.pdf


HOTLINES: 


Ep. 34 - The Red Head Murders & Forensic Taphonomy

[1] Byers S. Introduction to Forensic Anthropology. 1st ed. Boston (MA): Allyn & Bacon; 2002.

[2] CBC Radio. (2019). Canada’s 1st forensics body farm is coming this summer. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/asithappens/as-it-happens-tuesday-edition-1.5143405/canada-s-1st-forensics-body-farm-is-coming-this-summer-1.5143412

[3] Colburn C. Forensic Taphonomy. Presented at: Winona State University. Winona, MN. 

[4] Dautartas A, Kenyhercz MW, Viodoli GM, et al. Differential decomposition among pigs, rabbit, and human remains. J Forensic Sci. 2018; 63(6): 1673-1683.

[5] Ebersole, R. (2019). Down on the Body Farm: Unlocking the Forensic Secrets of Decaying Corpses. Undark. https://undark.org/2019/11/11/how-microbes-could-aid-forensic-detectives/

[6] Forensic Anthropology Center [Internet]. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee. [03/12/20]. Available from: https://fac.utk.edu/

[7] Goff ML. Early post-mortem changes and stages of decomposition in exposed cadavers. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 2009; 49(1-2):21-36

[8] Ruiz G. Enter The Disturbing World Of Body Farms. ATI. [Internet]. June 15, 2018 [March 12 2020]. Available from: https://allthatsinteresting.com/body-farms

[9] Shields, B. (2021). Some of death’s mysteries explored at Canada’s only ‘body farm’. CTV News. https://montreal.ctvnews.ca/some-of-death-s-mysteries-explored-at-canada-s-only-body-farm-1.5251672

[10] Shirley NR, Wilson RJ, Jantz LM. Cadaver use at the University of Tennessee’s anthropological research facility. Clin Anat. 2011; 24(3): 372-380

[11] Zhou, C., Byard, R.W. Factors and processes causing accelerated decomposition in human cadavers–an overview. J Forensic Leg Med. 2011; 18(1): 6-9.

[12] https://www.utdailybeacon.com/campus_news/science_and_medicine/body-farm-identity-crisis-solved-after-30-years/article_ec8e487c-bc28-11e8-8be7-4bdc4ddb29b9.html

[13] http://themurdersquad.com/episodes/the-redhead-murders/

[14] https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1891&dat=19850425&id=brgfAAAAIBAJ&sjid=rNcEAAAAIBAJ&pg=1432,4859376

[15] https://newschannel9.com/news/local/tbi-identifies-suspect-in-1985-redhead-murders-case-as-cleveland-tenn-man

[16] https://peoplepill.com/people/redhead-murders

[17] https://www.insider.com/us-cold-cases-true-crime-2018-4#tennessee-the-redhead-murders-of-red-haired-women-occurred-in-tennessee-as-well-as-four-other-states-over-three-decades-42

[18] https://allthatsinteresting.com/redhead-murders

[19] insidehook.com/article/crime/cold-case-redhead-murders

[20] https://forensicyard.com/the-mysterious-redhead-murders-serial-killing-or-mere-coincidence/

[21] https://unidentified-awareness.fandom.com/wiki/Espy_Black-Pilgrim

[22] https://www.knoxnews.com/story/news/crime/2019/12/19/suspect-named-redhead-murders-campbell-county-cold-case/2697031001/

[23] https://www.doenetwork.org/

Ep. 33 - The Romanovs & Forensic Anthropology

[1] ABFA. (2018). Students. Retrieved December 09, 2020, from http://theabfa.org/faq/students/

[2] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2021, July 5). Paul Broca. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Paul-Broca

[3] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2020, January 3). Romanov dynasty. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Romanov-dynasty

[4] Byers, S. N. (2011). Introduction to forensic anthropology. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

[5] Coble, M. D., Loreille, O. M., Wadhams, M. J., Edson, S. M., Maynard, K., Meyer, C. E., ... & Finelli, L. N. (2009). Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis. PloS one, 4(3), e4838.

[6] Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2001). BRIA 13 3 a The Riddle of the Romanovs. United States. [Web Archive] Retrieved from: https://www.crf-usa.org/bill-of-rights-in-action/bria-13-3-a-the-riddle-of-the-romanovs

[7] Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA). (n.d.). Retrieved December 08, 2020, from https://www.dpaa.mil/

[8] Ferllini R. & Wecht C. (2002).  Silent witness.  East Roseville, N.S.W:  Simon & Schuster

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Anthropology. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anthropology\

[9] History.com Editors. September 21, 2017. Romanov Family. HISTORY. A & E Television Networks. Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/topics/russia/romanov-family

[10] Kolesnikov, L. L., Pashinyan, G. A., & Abramov, S. S. (2001). Anatomical appraisal of the skulls and teeth associated with the family of Tsar Nicolay Romanov. The Anatomical record, 265(1), 15–32. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.1037

[11] Sansom, Ian. August 27, 2011. Great dynasties of the world: The Romanovs. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2011/aug/27/great-dynasties-romanovs-ian-sansom

[12] The Romanov Royal Martyrs. (2019, November 5). Romanovs: The Missing Bodies | National Geographic. [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/wRWSIUQfahI

[13] Ubelaker D.H. (2018). A history of forensic anthropology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 165, 915-923. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23306

[14] Ubelaker D.H. (2006). Introduction to Forensic Anthropology. In: Schmitt A., Cunha E., Pinheiro J. (eds) Forensic Anthropology and Medicine. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-099-7_1

Ep. 32 - Al Capone & Forensic Accounting

[1] A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 13). The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. History.com [Internet]. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-st-valentines-day-massacre  

[2] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, January 21). Al Capone. Encyclopedia Britannica [Internet]. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Al-Capone 

[3] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, February 7). Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre. Encyclopedia Britannica [Internet]. https://www.britannica.com/event/Saint-Valentines-Day-Massacre

[4] Crumbly DL., & Apostolou N. (2018). America’s First (and Most Fearless) High-profile Forensic Accountant [Internet]. http://abfa.us/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Americas-First-2.5.18-site.pdf

[5] Daugherty, G. (2021, October 29). How Al Capone spent his time in Alcatraz. History.com [Internet]. https://www.history.com/news/al-capone-alcatraz

[6] FBI. (2016, May 18). Al Capone. FBI [Internet]. https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/al-capone

[7] The TASA Group. (n.d.). Forensic Accountants: Why, When, and How to Hire Them [Internet]. https://www.tasanet.com/Knowledge-Center/Articles/ArtMID/477/ArticleID/343563/Forensic-Accountants-Why-When-and-How-to-Hire-Them

[8] Hayes, A. (2020). Forensic Accounting. Investopedia.com [Internet]. investopedia.com/terms/f/forensicaccounting.asp. 

history.com Editors (2019). Al Capone. History.com [Internet]. https://www.history.com/topics/crime/al-capone

[9] Roufa T. (2019). What Does a Forensic Accountant Do?. The Balance Careers [Internet].  https://www.thebalancecareers.com/forensic-accountant-job-information-974648#:~:text=Forensic%20accountants%20who%20provide%20investigative,fraud%20and%20other%20financial%20crimes

[10] Ministry of Finance of British Columbia. (n.d.). Investigation and Forensic Unit Policy and Procedures Manual. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/british-columbians-our-governments/organizational-structure/public-service/investigation_and_forensic_unit_policy_and_procedures_manual.pdf?bcgovtm=2free

[11] Tuovilq, A. (2020). Audit. Investopedia.com [Internet]. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/audit.asp

[12] Zysman A. (n.d.). Forensic Accounting Demystified [Internet]. https://www.forensicaccounting.com/index.htm

Ep. 31 - Steven Truscott & Forensic Entomology

[1] Anderson, G. (2000). Minimum and maximum development rates of some forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45, 824 - 832.

[2] Anderson, G. (2016, June 15). Entomology - A Primer. Canadian Society of Forensic Science. Retrieved from: https://www.csfs.ca/entomology/

[3] Anderson, G. (n.d.). Forensic Entomology: The Use of Insects in Death Investigation. Simon Frasier University. Retrieved from: https://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm

[4] Benecke, M. (2001). A brief history of forensic entomology. Forensic Science International, 120(1-2), 2 - 14. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00409-1

[5] Canadian Press (2007, August 28). Chronology: Key events in the Steven Truscott case. CTV News [internet]. https://www.ctvnews.ca/chronology-key-events-in-the-steven-truscott-case-1.254270.

[6] Cheryl Lynne Harper. Find a Grave [internet]. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/6490182/cheryl-lynne-harper.

[7] Decomposition: fly life cycle and development times. (2019, January 25). Australian Museum. Retrieved from: https://australian.museum/learn/science/decomposition-fly-life-cycles/

[8] Forensic Entomology. (n.d.). Crime Museum. Retrieved from: https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/forensic-investigation/forensic-entomology/

[9] Forsyth, B. (2016, October). Case not closed: The enduring tragedy of the Harper – Truscott murder case. Canadian Military History [internet]. https://militarybruce.com/case-not-closed-the-enduring-tragedy-of-the-harper-truscott-murder-case/

[10] Gregory, S. (2015, October 09). Lynne Harper murder still affects Lawson 56 years later. Seaforth Huron Expositor [internet]. https://www.seaforthhuronexpositor.com/2015/10/09/lynne-harper-murder-still-affects-lawson-56-years-later.

[11] Gemmellaro, D. (2017, June 21). Forensic Entomology: Where Insects Meet the Law. Entomology Today. Retrieved from: https://entomologytoday.org/2017/06/21/forensic-entomology-where-insects-meet-the-law/

[12] Harland-Logan, S. (n.d.). Steven Truscott. Innocence Canada [internet]. https://www.innocencecanada.com/exonerations/steven-truscott/.

[13] L.W. (n.d.). Bio: Steven Truscott. [internet]. http://people.stu.ca/~mccormic/3503WRONGFUL%21/workbook/BioTruscott.html.

[14] Makin, K. (2018, September 13). Steven Truscott Case. Canadian Encyclopedia [internet]. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/steven-truscott-case.

[15] Ontario Justice Education Network (n.d.). Timeline of Events for the Steven Truscott Case. [internet]. https://ojen.ca/wp-content/uploads/Steven-Truscott-Case-Timeline.pdf.

[16] Saferstein, R. (2018). Role of Forensic Entomologist. In Criminalistics: an introduction to forensic science (12th ed., pp. 122 - 123). Pearson Education.

[17] VanLaerhoven, S.L., Merritt, R.W. (2019, Aug). 50 years later, insect evidence overturns Canada’s most notorious case — Regina v. Steven Truscott. Forensic Science International, 301(Special Issue Cold Cases): 326-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.04.032.

[18] Yates, D. (2015, January 04). The search for Lynne Harper. Goderich Signal-Star [internet]. https://www.goderichsignalstar.com/2015/01/04/the-search-for-lynne-harper.

[19] (2020). Stephen Truscott -- Timeline. [internet].  http://people.stu.ca/~mccormic/3503WRONGFUL%21/workbook/TimelineTruscott.html.

Ep. 30 - Ted Kaczynski & Forensic Linguistics

[1] Anderson, J. & Brown, M. December 24, 2021. Unabomber Ted Kaczynski transferred from Supermax prison to a medical facility. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from: https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2021-12-24/unabomber-ted-kaczynski-moved-prison-medical-facility

[2] Agrawal, S. (2021, September 27). The unabomber case: Foundation of Forensic linguistics. The Critegal. Retrieved March 5, 2022, from https://www.thecritegal.com/post/the-unabomber-case-foundation-of-forensic-linguistics#:~:text=It%20was%20forensic%20linguistics%20that,leaving%20no%20DNA%20evidence%20whatsoever 

[3] Ariani, M. G., Sajedi, F., & Sajedi, M. (2014). Forensic linguistics: A brief overview of the key elements. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 158, 222-225.

[4] Bailey, Holly. January 28, 2016. The Unabomber takes on the Internet. Yahoo!News. Retrieved from: https://news.yahoo.com/the-unabomber-takes-on-the-internet-201549030.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAKNW4sbQIRtD37qhHkfekZTFq1nDNENhJScoQl8nDOJ8ANP_v6ltYNvntH4VFbk4vkb3zQb9TKdYX_9gtKDCkkDMyt5P84HrAw3KrnCWy6D9MMFVmnES5fOaIWxDtyAd-tjVxYzsFGuDSPia0rPkAKdai0xoa10sWdSNVGApvNmF

[5] Chase, Alston. June 2000. Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber. The Atlantic. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2000/06/harvard-and-the-making-of-the-unabomber/378239/

[6] Correa, Maite. (2013). Forensic Linguistics: An Overview of the Intersection and Interaction of Language and Law. Studies About Languages. 10.5755/j01.sal.0.23.5020.  

[7] Deutsch, Linda. May 4, 1998. Kaczynski Given Four Life Sentences. Associated Press. Retrieved from: https://apnews.com/article/89549b9e814bea3778f5b2e9fe303906

[8] Drake, Phil. April 2, 2021. Unabomber Ted Kaczynski now held in ‘Alcatraz of the Rockies’. Independent Record. Retrieved from: https://helenair.com/news/local/unabomber-ted-kaczynski-now-held-in-alcatraz-of-the-rockies/article_6d99cab5-51ce-5655-ab9c-3c14f4a08c78.html

[9] Fadden L., Disner S.F. (2014) Forensic Linguistics. In: Bruinsma G., Weisburd D. (eds) Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_534 

[10] FBI. April 2, 2021. The Words of a Killer: How the Unabomber’s Writings Helped Lead Investigators to His Door 25 Years Ago. FBI.gov. Retrieved from: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/the-words-of-a-killer-the-unabomber-case-25-years-later-040221

[11] FBI. n.d. The Unabomber. FBI.gov. Retrieved from: https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/unabomber

[12] History.com Editors. August 21, 2018. Unabomber (Ted Kaczynski). History, A&E Publishers. Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/topics/crime/unabomber-ted-kaczynski

[13] Hollien, Harry. (2012). About forensic phonetics. Linguistica. 52. 27. 10.4312/linguistica.52.1.27-53. 

[14] n.a. May 25, 2016. Unabomber Too Ill to Recognize Illness. Treatment Advocacy Center. Retrieved from: https://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/fixing-the-system/features-and-news/3081-unabomber-too-ill-to-recognize-illness

[15] n.a. 2021. TED KACZYNSKI: THE UNABOMBER. Crime Museum. Retrieved from: https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/terrorism/ted-kaczynski-the-unabomber/

[16] Ray, Michael. n.d. Ted Kaczynski American criminal. Britannica. Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ted-Kaczynski

[17] Sudjana, E. T. S., & Fitri, N. (2013). Kurt Cobain’s Suicide Note Case: Forensic Linguistic Profiling Analysis. International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 6(4). Retrieved from https://ijcst.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/ijcst/article/view/37943  

[19] Svartvik, J. (1968). The Evans Statements. University of Goteburg.

[18] Turchie, T. D. (1996, April 3). Search Warrant Affidavit. United States District Court Montana. https://web.archive.org/web/20081218190755/http://www.courttv.com/archive/casefiles/unabomber/documents/affidavit.html 

Ep. 29 - Lindbergh Kidnapping & Document Examination

[1] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2022, January 31). Charles Lindbergh. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-Lindbergh

[2] Canadian Centre for Forensic Science. (n.d.). Documents. Canadian Centre for Forensic Science. https://www.csfs.ca/what-we-do/disciplines-sections/documents/.

[3] FBI. (2016, May 18). Lindbergh kidnapping. FBI. Retrieved February 1, 2022, from https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/lindbergh-kidnapping

[4] Kidnapping and trial. Minnesota Historical Society. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2022, from https://www.mnhs.org/lindbergh/learn/kidnapping

[5] National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC). (n.d.). A Simplified Guide To Forensic Document Examination. National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC). http://www.forensicsciencesimplified.org/docs/QuestionedDocuments.pdf

[6] Norwitch Document Laboratory. (2019, June). Indented Writing. Norwitch Document Laboratory. https://www.questioneddocuments.com/indented-writing/

[7] Ray, M. (2021, February 22). Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Lindbergh-baby-kidnapping

[8] Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination, SWGDOC (2018, March 12). What Does a Forensic Document Examiner Do?. Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination, SWGDOC.  https://www.swgdoc.org/.

Ep. 28 - Mark Twitchell & Blood Pattern Analysis

[1] BCA. (n.d.). Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Retrieved from: https://dps.mn.gov/divisions/bca/bca-divisions/forensic-science/Pages/forensic-programs-crime-scene-bpa.aspx

[2] Bennett, D. (2011, March 21). Wife of accused killer thought he was with shrink. CTV News. https://bc.ctvnews.ca/wife-of-accused-killer-thought-he-was-with-shrink-1.621415.

[3] CBC News. (2011, April 05). Twitchell directed police to remains. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/twitchell-directed-police-to-remains-1.1044329

[4] CBC News. (2011, March 22). Slain man called friend after garage visit, Twitchell jury told. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/slain-man-called-friend-after-garage-visit-twitchell-jury-told-1.1051080

[5] CBS News Editors. (2012, July 10). Mark Twitchell: A closer look at the evidence. CBS News. https://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/mark-twitchell-a-closer-look-at-the-evidence/3/.

[6] Frasier, B. (2019, November 26). Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. FRSC 2200: Basic Sciences for Forensics. Halifax; Nova Scotia.

[7] Gelinas, B. (2011, April 01). Bio: House of Cards crew. Edmonton Journal. https://edmontonjournal.com/news/bio-house-of-cards-crew

[8] Gelinas, B. (2011, March 15). Bio - Mark Andrew Twitchell. Edmonton Journal. https://edmontonjournal.com/news/bio-mark-andrew-twitchell.

[9] Habib, A. (2019, September). Crime Scene Investigations. FRSC 2200: Basic Sciences for Forensics. Halifax; Nova Scotia.

[10] Naves, A.W. (2021, June 19). The Dexter Killer – Mark Twitchell. Medium. https://medium.com/dark-aberrations/the-murder-of-johnny-altinger-3dcc0a6883f8.

[11] Peschel, O., Kunz, S. N., Rothschild, M. A., & Mützel, E. (2011). Blood stain pattern analysis. Forensic science, medicine, and pathology, 7(3), 257-270.

[12] PhysicsWorld. (2019, October 17). The physics of blood spatter. IOP Publishing. Retrieved from: https://physicsworld.com/a/the-physics-of-blood-spatter/

[13] Thompson, E. (2018, 22 March). The Dexter Killer – Mark Twitchell. Morbidology. https://morbidology.com/the-dexter-killer-mark-twitchell/

[14] WIRED. (2020, January 30). Forensics Expert Explains How to Analyze Bloodstain Patterns [Video]. Youtube. https://youtu.be/0jltioeaEyY

Ep. 27 - Jim Jones & Forensic Toxicology

[1] Brosseau, C. (2020, March). Introduction to Forensic Toxicology. FRSC 2201. Halifax; Nova Scotia. 

[2] Carter, T. (2013, July 25). Murder or Suicide: What I Saw. Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple. Retrieved from: https://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=31976

[3] Citroner, G. (2018, September 17). Cyanide poisoning: Symptoms, treatment, complications, and more. Healthline. Retrieved December 23, 2021, from https://www.healthline.com/health/cyanide-poisoning#prevention

[4] Conroy, O. J. (2018, November 17). An apocalyptic cult, 900 dead: remembering the Jonestown massacre, 40 years on. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/17/an-apocalyptic-cult-900-dead-remembering-the-jonestown-massacre-40-years-on

[5] History.com Editors. (2010, October 18). Jonestown. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/topics/crime/jonestown

[6] Jonestown. FBI. Retrieved from: https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/jonestown

[7] N.a. (2008, November 13). Inside the Jonestown massacre. CNN. Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/11/12/jonestown.factsheet/index.html?_s=PM:US

[8] Real Stories. (2018, March 27). The Jonestown Massacre: Paradise Lost (Cult Documentary) [Video]. Youtube. https://youtu.be/VWqACvTknls

[9] Saferstein, R. (2018). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science (12th ed.). Pearson. 

[10] Shsucj. (2012). Forensic research extends detection of cyanide poisoning. EurekAlert! Retrieved December 23, 2021, from https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/732014

[11] Stephen N. Vogel, Thomas R. Sultan & Raymond P. Ten Eyck (1981) Cyanide Poisoning, Clinical Toxicology, 18:3, 367-383, DOI: 10.3109/15563658108990043

[12] Valiente, A. & DelaRosa, M. (2018, September 28). 40 years after the Jonestown massacre: Jim Jones' surviving sons on what they think of their father, the Peoples Temple today. abcNEWS. Retrieved from: https://abcnews.go.com/US/40-years-jonestown-massacre-jim-jones-surviving-sons/story?id=57997006

Ep. 26 - Feral People & the National Parks Conspiracy

[1] National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs)

[2] National Park Service Cold Cases

[3] Missing in the United States Map

[4] asantos16. (2013). Psychology of language flashcards | Quizlet. Quizlet. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from https://quizlet.com/41871997/psychology-of-language-flash-cards/.

[5] Brittanica Editors. (2021, September 30). National Park. Brittanica. https://www.britannica.com/science/national-park

[6] Brogaard, B. (2017, July 10). The feral child nicknamed Genie | psychology Today Canada. Psychology Today. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/the-superhuman-mind/201707/the-feral-child-nicknamed-genie.

[7] Cherry, K. (2021, February 26). The story of "Genie," a child deprived of nearly all human contact. Verywell Mind. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from https://www.verywellmind.com/genie-the-story-of-the-wild-child-2795241.

[8] Cook, B. (2021, May). Are there feral people in national parks? Behind TikTok's cannibal claims. THe Focus. https://www.thefocus.news/travel/feral-people-national-parks/

[9] (1969). Dennis Lloyd Martin Disappearance Case File. National Park Service. https://www.nps.gov/aboutus/foia/upload/1969_GRSM_DennisMartin_dissapearance_REDACTED.pdf

[10] Dark Tales. (2020, June 04). The Disappearance of Dennis Martin. Dark Tales. https://darktales.blog/2020/06/04/the-disappearance-of-dennis-martin/

[11] Ferris, George C. (3 June 1902). Sanichar the Wolf-Boy of India (PDF). New York City. p. 20.

[12] Fredriksson, T. (2021, April 18). Tarzan was lord William Charles Midlin, 14th Earl of Streatham. Undersökande Tomas Fredriksson. Retrieved November 24, 2021, from https://underskandetomasfredriksson.net/2021/04/18/lord-william-charles-midlin-14th-earl-of-streatham/.

[13] Hussain, F. (2017, April 8). Raised by animals. DAWN.COM. Retrieved November 24, 2021, from https://www.dawn.com/news/1325240.

[14] James, S. (2008, May 19). Raised by a Tyrant, Suffering a Sibling's Abuse. ABC News. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from https://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=4873347&page=1

[15] Jarman, M. (2019, January 2). feral children. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/feral-children

[16] Karomo, C. (2021, May 6). Where is Genie Wiley now in 2021? - the secrets about her healthcare exposed. TheNetline. Retrieved November 22, 2021, from https://thenetline.com/where-is-genie-wiley-now/

[17] Lakin, M. (2019, June 06). Missing in the Smokies: Dennis Martin's disappearance still haunts park, 52 years later. Knox News. https://www.knoxnews.com/story/news/local/2019/06/06/dennis-martin-missing-smoky-mountains-50-years-spence-field-mystery-smokies-search-east-tennessee/1272247001/

[18] Macdonald, F. (2015, October 12). Feral: The children raised by wolves. BBC Culture. Retrieved November 23, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20151012-feral-the-children-raised-by-wolves.

[19] Nova (1997). Genie: Secret of the Wild Child [Film]. https://topdocumentaryfilms.com/genie-secret-wild-child/.

[20] Spitznagel, E. (2020, July 04). Why hundreds of people vanish into the American wilderness. New York Post. https://nypost.com/2020/07/04/why-hundreds-of-people-vanish-into-the-american-wilderness/

[21] Zak M. (2015). A Book Like Rain in the Desert. Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature 53(2), 66-73. doi:10.1353/bkb.2015.0035.

Ep. 25 - Wayne Boden & Forensic Odontology

[1] AAFS. (n.d.). Odontology. American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Retrieved from: https://aafs.org/Home/Resources/Students/Sections/Odontology.aspx

[2] Adebowale, T. (2020, April 22). Here's What Happened to Dr. Michael West From the Innocence Files. Pulse. Retrieved from: https://www.pulse.ng/lifestyle/mens-health/heres-what-happened-to-dr-michael-west-from-the-innocence-files/k098cbf

[3] CIP. (n.d.). Bite Mark Evidence. California Innocence Project Retrieved from: https://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/bite-mark-evidence/

[4] Divakar, K. P. (2017). Forensic Odontology: The New Dimension in Dental Analysis. International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS, 13(1), 1-5.

[5] Selby, D. (2020, April 26). Why Bite Mark Evidence Should Never Be Used in Criminal Trials. Innocence Project. Retrieved from: https://innocenceproject.org/what-is-bite-mark-evidence-forensic-science/

[6] Souviron, R., & Haller, L. (2017, December). Bite mark evidence: bite mark analysis is not the same as bite mark comparison or matching or identification. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 4(3); 617 - 622.

[7] UMSOD. (n.d.). Early Forensic Odontology. National Museum of Dentistry. Retrieved from: https://www.dental.umaryland.edu/museum/exhibits/online-exhibits/forensic-odontology/early-forensic-odontology/

Ep. 24 - Anatoly Moskvin & Mummies

[1] BBC News. (2012, March 6). Russian 'grave robber made dolls from girls' corpses'. BBC News. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-15653074

[2] Byers, S. (2011). Introduction to Forensic Anthropology (4th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.

[3] DeLong, W. (2019, February 11). Anatoly Moskvin's Parents Thought He Collected Vintage Dolls - They Were Really Young Mummified Girls. All That's Interesting. Retrieved from: https://allthatsinteresting.com/anatoly-moskvin

[4] Egyptian mummies. Smithsonian Institution. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from https://www.si.edu/spotlight/ancient-egypt/mummies.

[5] Ferllini, R. (2002). Silent Witness. NY: Firefly Books. 

[6] Garlinghouse, T. (2020, July 15). Mummification: The lost art of embalming the dead. LiveScience. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from https://www.livescience.com/mummification.html

[7] Gazeta, R. (2012, January 19). The investigator spoke about high-profile cases. [Interview]. RGRU. Retrieved from: https://rg.ru/2012/01/19/reg-pfo/stravinskas.html

[8] Investigative Department. (2013, February 27). In the Nizhny Novgorod region, compulsory medical measures will be applied to a man who has committed desecration of the bodies of the deceased and the places of their burial. Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation for the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Retrieved from: https://nnovgorod.sledcom.ru/news/item/727130

[9] Reddy, K., & Lowenstein, E. J. (2011). Forensics in dermatology: part I. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 64(5), 801-808.

[10] Stewart, W. (2020, November 2). Russian graverobber who was locked up for stealing 29 girls' corpses or his 'doll collection' refuses to apologise to their parents as he appeals for release - so he can move in with his new girlfriend. DailyMail. Retrieved from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8904599/Graverobber-stole-girls-corpses-doll-collection-refuses-apologise-parents.html

[11] Sudakov, D. (2018, October 25). Man accused of making 26 life-size dolls from dead girls' body. Pravada.ru. Retrieved from: https://english.pravda.ru/society/141872-dead_dolls/

[12] The case of necropolis Moskvin postponed until June 26. (2015, June 18). Crime Chronical NN. Retrieved from: http://kriminalnn.ru/2015/06/18/delo-nekropolista-moskvina-otlozheno-do-26-iyunya/

[13] Welcome to the story about Tollund Man. Museum Silkeborg. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2021, from https://www.museumsilkeborg.dk/welcome-to-the-story-about-tollund-man.

[14] 7NEWS. (2020, November 7). Russian man lived with girls' mummified corpses, turned them into 'dolls'. 7NEWS. Retrieved from: https://7news.com.au/news/world/russian-man-lived-with-girls-mummified-corpses-turned-them-into-dolls--c-1536329

Ep. 23 - Unsolved Serial Killers

[1] Badal, J. (2016, December 2). Torso murders. Cleveland Police Museum. https://www.clevelandpolicemuseum.org/collections/torso-murders/. 


[2] Bennett, E. (29 May 2021). The notorious and eerie unsolved mystery of killer dubbed 'Jack the Stripper'. My London [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.mylondon.news/news/nostalgia/notorious-eerie-unsolved-mystery-killer-20661893?utm_source=linkCopy&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=sharebar (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 


[3] Boyle, C. (n.d.) Long Island Serial Killer: A Deeper Look Into the Gilgo Beach Murders. LongIsland.com. Retrieved from: https://www.longisland.com/long-island-serial-killer.html


[4] Cheng, P., & Millman, J. (Jan. 16, 2020). Eerie Crime Scene Photo Offers 1st Public Insight Into Possible Gilgo Beach Killer. NBC New York. Retrieved from: https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/police-to-release-new-details-in-2010-death-of-sex-worker-on-long-island-beach/2260585/


[5] Crime Investigation. (n.d.). Jack the Stripper’ and the Hammersmith Murders. Crime Investigation [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/article/jack-the-stripper-and-the-hammersmith-murders (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 


[6] DeMarco, L. (2018, October 13). Cleveland's infamous Torso Murders: 80 years later, the fascination endures (vintage photos). cleveland. https://www.cleveland.com/life-and-culture/erry-2018/10/55d2b5ea596983/clevelands-infamous-torso-murd.html.


[7] Fernandez, M., Tim, S. (Apr. 17, 2011). Officer and His Dog Play Key Role in Hunt for Remains. New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/18/nyregion/in-long-island-hunt-for-bodies-key-role-for-officer-and-dog.html


[8] Green, L. (Sept. 12, 2017). Long Island carpenter convicted of killing two prostitutes eyed in at least one of the unsolved Gilgo Beach murders. New York Daily News. Retrieved from: https://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/convicted-killer-tied-gilgo-beach-murders-article-1.3490281


[9] Hewitt, L. (n.d.) Jack the Stripper: Hammersmith Nude Murders. Historic Mysteries [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.historicmysteries.com/jack-the-stripper/ (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 


[10] Killoran, E. (Dec. 15, 2016). Why Hasn’t the Long Island Serial Killer Case Been Solved? Rolling Stone. Retrieved from: https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-features/why-hasnt-the-long-island-serial-killer-case-been-solved-119604/


[11] Mead, J. C. (Dec. 14, 2003). 4 Bodies Leave Hamlet On Edge. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/14/nyregion/4-bodies-leave-hamlet-on-edge.html


[12] Mead, Julia C. (Feb. 8, 2004). A Manorville Body Is Identified. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/08/nyregion/in-brief-a-manorville-body-is-identified.html


[13] Moriarty, E. (Dec. 13, 2020). INSIDE THE MIND OF A MURDERER: NEW CLUES IN THE HUNT FOR THE LONG ISLAND SERIAL KILLER. CBS News. Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/long-island-serial-killer-clues-48-hours/


[14] Pelisek, C. (Nov. 7, 2016). Long Island Serial Killer: How Close Are Police to Catching the Suspect — or Suspects? PEOPLE.com. Retrieved from: https://people.com/crime/long-island-serial-killer-update-police-fbi-investigation/


[15] Pelisek, C. (Mar. 1, 2021). New discovery+ series tackles decade-old long island serial murders. PEOPLE.com. Retrieved from: https://people.com/crime/long-island-serial-murders-discovery-id-series/


[16] Rashbaum, W. K., Goldstein, J. (Apr. 8, 2011). Prostitutes' killer seen as versed in police techniques. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/09/nyregion/09bodies.html


[17] Schram, J., Algar, S., & Tacopino, J. (Dec. 12, 2015). Busted ex-police chief blocked FBI probe of Gilgo Beach murders. New York Post. Retrieved from: https://nypost.com/2015/12/12/busted-ex-police-chief-blocked-fbi-probe-of-gilgo-beach-murders/


[18] Swenson, K. (2021, January 7). Frank Dolezal's name cleared in Torso Murders. Cleveland Scene. https://www.clevescene.com/scene-and-heard/archives/2010/08/23/frank-dolezals-name-cleared-in-torso-murders.


[19] The Killing Season. A&E Network. November 5, 2016. Josh Zeman and Rachel Mills.

[20] The Ministry of History. (28 Jan 2021). The Hammersmith Murders. The Ministry of History [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.theministryofhistory.co.uk/short-histories-blog/hammersmith-jack-the-stripper-murders (Accessed 05 Sep 2021). 


[21] The Newsroom. (13 Feb 2019). MURDERED BY A SERIAL KILLER: ‘Free-spirited’ and ‘beautiful’ Blackpool girl Helene was victim of evil Jack the Stripper. The Gazette [internet]. Retrieved from https://www.blackpoolgazette.co.uk/news/murdered-serial-killer-free-spirited-and-beautiful-blackpool-girl-helene-was-victim-evil-jack-stripper-115728 (Accessed 06 Sep 2021). 


[22] Torso murders: Encyclopedia of cleveland history: Case western reserve university. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History | Case Western Reserve University. (2020, November 11). https://case.edu/ech/articles/t/torso-murders.


[23] Torres, E. (Feb. 2, 2020). What we know and don't about Long Island’s suspected serial killer case. ABC News. Retrieved from: https://abcnews.go.com/US/long-islands-suspected-serial-killer-case/story?id=68328499


[24] VICE Editors. (Feb.3, 2016) Inside the Bizarre, Unsolved Case of the Long Island Serial Killer. VICE. Retrieved from: https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/4wbegj/ghosts-of-suffolk-county-inside-the-bizarre-unsolved-case-of-the-long-island-serial-killer

Ep. 22 - Fred & Rosemary West

[1] Cawthorne, N. (2007). The House of Horrors. In Serial Killers and Mass Murderers: Profiles of the World's Most Barbaric Criminals (p. 272-304). Ulysses Press.  

[2]Hickey, E. W. (2002). Serial murderers and their victims (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. 


[3] Hickey, E. (2003). Team killers. In Encyclopedia of murder and violent crime (Vol. 1, pp. 463-466). SAGE Publications, Inc., https://www.doi.org/10.4135/9781412950619.n446


[4] Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns, and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 1–11.


[5] Ramsland, K. (2014, July). Partners in Crime. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/articles/201407/partners-in-crime


[6] Silvio, H., McCloskey, K., & Ramos-Grenier, J. (2006). Theoretical consideration of female sexual predator serial killers in the United States. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 251–259. 


[7] Sounes, H. (1995). Fred and Rose: The Full Story of Fred and Rose West and the Gloucester House of Horrors. Warner Books (London). ISBN 978-0-7515-1322-6.


[8] Vronsky, P. (2007). Female serial killers: How and why women become monsters. Berkley Books. 


[9] Woster, Matthew, "Differences in Characteristics of Criminal Behavior Between Solo and Team Serial Killers" (2020). Dissertations. 463. https://digitalcommons.nl.edu/diss/463


Ep. 21 - Nova Scotia's Notorious Past

Butterbox Babies

[1] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Lila Gladys Young. Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved from  https://murderpedia.org/female.Y/y/young-gladys-lila.htm (Accessed 24 Jul 2021)


[2] Canadian Children's Rights Council (n.d.). The Butterbox Babies - The selling and murdering of Canadian Babies. Canadian Children's Rights Council [Internet]. Retrieved from https://canadiancrc.com/Butterbox-Babies_Killers-Child-Trafficking-Canada/Butterbox-Babies-Baby-killers-child-trafficking-selling-babies-Canada-adoption-story.aspx (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).


[3] Livio, S.K. (n.d.). The Butterbox Babies - Horrific Canadian Child Rights Story: Survivors of dark episode in Canada's history trace their past. Canadian Children's Rights Council [Internet]. Retrieved from https://canadiancrc.com/Butterbox-Babies_Killers-Child-Trafficking-Canada/Butterbox_Survivors.aspx (Accessed 24 Jul 2021).


[4] (n.a.). (n.d.). Butterbox Babies. Ideal Maternity Home Survivors [Internet]. Retrieved from https://www.idealmaternityhomesurvivors.com/the-story/ (Accessed 23 Jul 2021).


[5]. Bottemiller, K. (21 Jul 2012) GV woman helps ‘Butterbox Baby’ survivors understand past. Green Valley News [Internet]. Retrieved from https://www.gvnews.com/news/local/gv-woman-helps-butterbox-baby-survivors-understand-past/article_3f5d8600-d353-11e1-87fd-001a4bcf887a.html (Accessed 24 Jul 2021). 


[6] Hartlen, R. (1999). Butterbox survivors: Life after the ideal maternity home. Nimbus Publishing. 


Sydney River McDonald's Murders

[7] Benjamin, G. (2019, November 9). One of three men convicted in McDonald's murders awarded unescorted absences   - Halifax. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/6148269/convict-mcdonalds-murders-awarded-unescorted-absences/.


[8] Pace, N. (2018, August 20). McDonald's killer Darren Muise 'financially secure' and 'living a good life' on parole: documents - Halifax. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/3263289/mcdonalds-killer-darren-muise-financially-secure-and-living-a-good-life-on-parole-documents/.


[9] R. v. Wood, 1993 CanLII 4535 (NS SC), <https://canlii.ca/t/1ql92>, retrieved on 2021-07-22


[10] R. v. Wood, 1994 NSCA 239 (CanLII), <https://canlii.ca/t/1mqcn>, retrieved on 2021-07-22


[11] R. v. MacNeil, 1993 CanLII 3348 (NS SC), <https://canlii.ca/t/1nh22>, retrieved on 2021-07-22


[12] R. v. MacNeil, 1993 CanLII 4442 (NS SC), <https://canlii.ca/t/1pqsc>, retrieved on 2021-07-22


[13] Tattrie, J. (2017, September 18). Sydney River McDonald's Murders. Sydney River McDonald's Murders | The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/sydney-river-mcdonalds-murders.


Goler Clan

[14] Beltrame, J. (1986, March 13). Shame of ‘hillbilly’ incest forces Nova Scotia county into action. Ottawa Citizen, pp. A4.


[15] CBC News. (1998, November 8). Abuse victim fights to change law. CBC. Accessed from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/abuse-victim-fights-to-change-law-1.159246


[16] Cruise, D., & Griffiths, A. (2017). On South Mountain: The Dark Secrets of the Goler Clan. Nimbus Publishing. 


[17] Duncan, J. (2018, December 14). 10 Dark Facts About The Incestuous Goler Clan. Listverse. Accessed from: https://listverse.com/2018/12/14/10-dark-facts-about-the-incestuous-goler-clan/


[18] Souerbry, R. (2019, July 23). The Goler Clan Spent Years In Their Isolated, Inbred Town - Until The Cops Showed Up. Ranker. Accessed from: https://www.ranker.com/list/goler-clan-facts/rachel-souerbry


[19] Vickery, C. (2017, May 10). The Goler Clan 1986 [Video file]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ctOzHsqvF80


[20] Wood, C. (1986, March 10). Follow Up: The scars of poverty. Maclean’s.

Ep. 20 - Lethal Lovers & Female Serial Killers

[1] Aamodt, M. G. (2016, September 4). Serial killer statistics. Retrieved 12 July 2021 from http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Serial%20Killer%20Information%20Center/Serial%20Killer%20Statistics.pdf


[2] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Catherine May Wood: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Catherine May Wood Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. https://murderpedia.org/female.W/w/wood-catherine.htm


[3] Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Gwendolyn Graham: Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Gwendolyn Graham Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. https://murderpedia.org/female.G/g/graham-gwendolyn.htm


[4] Bonn, S (24 Jun 2019). The Unique Motives of Female Serial Killers. Psychology Today [Internet]. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/wicked-deeds/201906/the-unique-motives-female-serial-killers (Accessed 12 Jul 2021). 


[5] Cottier, C (03 Dec 2020).¸Female Serial Killers Exist, but Their Motives Are Different. Discovery. Retrieved from https://www.discovermagazine.com/mind/female-serial-killers-exist-but-their-motives-are-different (Accessed 12 Jul 2021).


[6] Dailymail.com, R. S. F. (2020, January 16). Serial killer freed from prison 33 years after murders - as detective warns she may strike again. Daily Mail Online. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7895921/Serial-killer-freed-prison-33-years-murders-detective-warns-strike-again.html


[7] Farrell, A.L., D. Keppel, R.D., & Titterington, V.B. (20 May 2013). Testing Existing Classifications of Serial Murder Considering Gender: An Exploratory Analysis of Solo Female Serial Murderers. Investig. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10: 268–288. DOI: 10.1002/jip.1392


[8] Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). Serial Murder: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investivagtors. Behavioural Analysis Unit, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. https://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/serial-murder#two.


[9] Gwendolyn Graham. Crime Museum. (2019, November 8). https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/serial-killers/gwendolyn-graham/.


[10] Harrison, M.A., Hughes, S.M., Gott, A.J. (2019). Sex Differences in Serial Killers. Evolutionary Behavioural Sciences, 13(3): 295-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000157


[11] https://pdf.zlibcdn.com/dtoken/b5376483737eaa99bd0f07e08cd71334/The_New_Predator_Women_Who_Kill__Profiles_of_Fem_1000666_(z-lib.org).pdf

Ep. 19 - Albert DeSalvo & Forensic Hypnosis

[1] Albert DeSalvo. (n.d.). http://www.eaglehorse.org/home_station/hidden_stories/50s/desalvo/desalvo.htm.


[2] Anglin, R. J. (1967, January 13). Albert DeSalvo is 'Boston Strangler' - The B